Ovid Illustrated: The Reception of Ovid's
Metamorphoses in Image and Text
Notes and Text-Image Links for Particular Scenes
(Daniel Kinney, U. Va.; commentary in progress)
Title-Page, 1563. See e. g. Harvard's holdings for Spreng's later efforts (translations of Homer, Virgil, Josephus, and Italian humanist Palingenius) as well as remarkable copies of 1563 and 1564 (in the first, notes by Gabriel Harvey; in the second, German poems in Spreng's hand). For the general format of Spreng's presentation of Ovid, compare the many verse moralizations appended to Golding's translation of 1567 or the 1632 frontispiece, explication, and title-page of George Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished.|
Dedication [Page i]. Spreng dedicates his volume to Rudolf (1552-1612, future Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II) and Ernst (1553-95), sons of Maximilian II (1527-76, Emperor 1564-76), on whom see R. J. W. Evans, Rudolf II and His World: A Study in Intellectual History 1576-1612 (Oxford, 1973).
Preface. [Page x]. Involucra ["veils"]. This revealing word-choice links Spreng's work to medieval allegorical readings; with Doran, Hulse, and Peter Dronke, Fabula: Explorations into the Uses of Myth in Medieval Platonism (Leiden, 1974), cf. Lactantius on "poet's business" (Div. inst. 1.11: "... officium poetae [est] in eo, ut ea, quae gesta sunt vere, in alias species obliquis figurationibus cum decore aliquo conversa traducat") and Bernardus Silvestris (Commentum super sex libros Eneidos, ed. J. W. and E. F. Jones [Lincoln, NE, 1977], 3/14, and In Martianum Capellam 2.82), defining the term integumentum as "genus demostrationis [or "oratio"] sub fabulosa narratione veritatis involvens [or "claudens"] intellectum, unde etiam dicitur involucrum" ("a type of discourse involving the understanding of truth under a fabulous story, whence it is also called involucrum"). Reaching back further still for authority, Bernardus' note on Martianus also cites Virgil, Aen. 6.100, on the Cumaean Sybil ("obscuris vera involvens," "wrapping truths in obscurity"), thus connecting the indirection of mythos and fabula--both defined (by [e. g.] Plutarch, De gloria Ath. 348AB, and Macrobius, In Somn. Scip. 1.2.7) as a "false story figuring forth truth"--to the riddling of pre-Christian oracles; for the latter see also Heraclitus fr. 93 on the oracle at Delphi ("Oute legei oute kryptei, alla semainei"; "it neither speaks nor conceals, but betokens"). Pagan lore or historia poetica / "poetical history" could be treated as a detailed if imperfect parallel to biblical history; with Theodulus' ninth-century eclogue-debate between Falsehood (Pseustis) and Truth (Alithia) note the various Ovid illustrators who also turned their hand to the Bible (Salomon, Solis, Picart et al.) and consider the parallel histories represented on the Sgrafittohaus in Retz, Austria, and comprised in the Traits de l'histoire universelle, sacrée et profane, digitized on this site.
Commendatory Verses. [page xxi.] Johann Posthius. Besides summary Ovidian Tetrasticha ("Quatrains") in Latin and German, also first published 1563, Johann Posthius (1537-97) further contributed commendatory verses on G. Bersmann's recension of J. Moltzer's or Micyllus' Ovid (Metamorphoseon Libri XV, Leipzig, 1582, 31). With H.-J. Horn's Tetrasticha essay, also see Julie Coleman's fine brief introduction to a Glasgow University exhibit of cuts from a later edition of Posthius which is also online on our site (= 1569). A remarkable hand-tinted copy of Spreng's Metamorphoses Illustratae (1563) in Trinity College Library, Hartford, Connecticut, includes interleaved copies of Posthius' first 100 quatrains in German beside the appropriate woodcuts in Spreng.
Book I. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632). On this mode of Ovidian synoptic tableaux now see Gerlinde Huber-Rebenich et al., Ikonographisches Repertorium zu den "Metamorphosen" des Ovid: Die textbegleitende Druckgraphik, vol. II: Sammeldarstellungen (Berlin, 2004).
1/0 Chaos. [1.5-20]
1/1 Distribution of the Elements. [1.21-75] Page 1v. Chaos. When Spreng takes up this term, the main emphasis is the contrast between pagan tales of a universe crafted from disorganized prima materia (chaos) and the orthodox Christian account of miraculous creation ex nihilo (i. e., "out of nothing"), a doctrine that George Sabinus in his 1555 Ovid commentary on these lines attributes directly to Moses. Also worth noting here: a) how Spreng's argument reduces Greco-Roman scientific speculation, along with bare myth, to poetic embroidery on Judaeo-Christian revealed truth; b) how the accompanying image serves about equally well for the Christian creation-tale and the pagan one (though the Demiurge does not often wear a bishop's hat!); c) how in this instance Spreng offers us a corrective "True Interpretation" rather than the more usual "Allegorical Reading" which hints elsewhere that Ovid actually shares the right-thinking Spreng's own lines elaborate. For the Genesis connection routinely alleged for the opening of Ovid's "Poets' Bible," with the following note see in English esp. Allen and Harding; for the iconographic tradition connected with these Bible chapters see Johannes Zahlten, Creatio Mundi: Darstellungen der Sechs Schöpfungstage und naturwissenschaftliches Weltbild im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1979); M. G. Ciardi Duprè dal Poggetto and M. Bernabò, La Genesi, Capitoli 1-11 (Turin, 1998); and Hans M. von Erffa, Ikonologie der Genesis: die christlichen Bildthemen aus dem alten Testament und ihre Quellen (Munich, 1989-).
1/2 Living Creatures Allotted Their Places. [1.76-88] Page 2v. Mens immortalis ["an immortal mind"]. A connection with Gen. 1:26 (Faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram, "Let us make man in our image and likeness") is already more than implicit in the phrasing of Lactantius' summary (ad dei similitudinem et imaginem finxit). In terros. Clearly a misprint for "In terras," "toward earth." Non datur ... lares. Spreng associates Heb. 13:14 ("For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come") with the old link between erect posture and heavenly essence (borne out, too, in a venerable pun on Gk. anthropos "man" and ana + threpon "looking up").
1/3 The Golden Age. [1.90-112] Page 3r [image]. Here begins, slightly simplified, a familiar Hesiodic division of human experience, a favorite schematic (see Ripa , original text, "Età dell' Oro," and Goltzius' Ovid 1/3-5a) with numerous close analogues, especially in Renaissance art; see the valuable Bochum Archive of Mannerist artistic schemas, which surprisingly omits this traditional "four-metals" taxonomy. Page 3v. Daniel. The dream of Nebuchadnezzar, expounded in Dan. 2.31-44, and not seldom connected with Ovid's Four Ages; cf. Dante, Inf. 14.73-120, and Brumble, s. vv. "Four Ages."
1/4 The Silver Age. [1.113-24]
1/5 The Bronze and Iron Ages. [1.127-50]
1/5a Prometheus Tormented. Not here in Ovid, this theme enters later Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655); also see 1/5c.
1/5b The Seasons of the Year. Not here in Ovid; also see on 1/3.
1/5c Pandora. Theme inserted by Benserade-Le Clerc-Krauss; actually not here in Ovid, but connected with Prometheus' well-meaning offenses as well as with Iron-Age decadence in Hesiod's Works and Days. Other versions of Pandora found in Traits de l'histoire ... sacrée et profane and Métamorphoses ... d'après ... Le Clerc are derived from a drawing by Abraham van Diepenbeeck via M. de Marolles' Tableaux du Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655, several times reengraved and reprinted); for more detailed discussion see Dora and Erwin Panofsky, Pandora's Box: The Changing Aspects of a Mythical Symbol (Princeton, 1956), 74-78.
1/6 War of the Giants. [1.151-62]
1/6a Enceladus. Not here in Ovid (but see Banier's commentary on Book I), this pictorial theme enters later Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
1/7 Council of the Gods. [1.163-206]
1/8 Lycaon into a Wolf. [1.209-43]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Page 8r. radibus feritate. Surely an error for rabidus feritate ("rabidly fierce"); cf. Ovid 1.198 notus feritate.
1/8a Neptune Raises the Waters. [1.274-92]
1/9 The Flood. [1.262-73]. The Salomon-Solis Flood design is expanded on a porcelain vase, Crown-N mark, probably early 19th-c. Capodimonte.
1/10 Flood's End. [1.274-312]
1/11 Restoration of the Human Race. [1.348-415]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Salomon's woodcut is or appears to be closely reproduced on a handsome maiolica basin (detailed photos s. n. "Pyrrha and Deucalion") in the Getty Museum; Salomon's own designs may in turn have been based on still earlier maiolica pieces or occasionally a common print source (see examples with comments in B. Rackham's Catalogue of Italian Maiolica, 2 vols. [London, 1940], index no. 2, under "Ovid").
1/12 Python's End. [1.434-47]
1/13 Daphne Is Beloved by Phoebus. [1.452-524]
1/14 Daphne into a Laurel. [1.525-67] Page 14r [image]. Famously sculpted by Bernini in 1622-25; with the ICONOS site see this page for additional reckonings with this theme in art. This is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563.
1/14a A Gathering of Rivers. [1.568-82]
1/15 Jupiter and Io. [1.568-600] Page 16r [image]. A Meissen pattern painted 1745 includes this image from Solis along with 3/2 and 13/3; see The Wark Collection, Early Meissen Porcelain, the Cummer Gallery of Art (Jacksonville, FL, 1984), nos. 673-74.
1/16 Io into a Cow. [1.601-24]
1/17 Argus and Mercury. [1.668-88]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
1/18 Syrinx into a Reed. [1.689-712]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Page 18r. Pan Demogorgonis filius ["Demogorgon's son Pan"]. A bizarre variant lineage for Hermes' son, Pan, from the proem and fourth chapter of Boccaccio's Genealogia Deorum Book I. Though a "primal" god mentioned in quite a few Renaissance texts, and impressively glossed "Demon-Gorgon," i. e., "Terror-Demon," "the Terror of Demons," or "God of the Earth," Demogorgon was quite possibly brought into existence by way of a garbled orientalizing reference to the Demiurge ("Craftsman" or "Maker") of Plato's Timaeus in a late-ancient scholium on Statius' Thebais 4.516 (on a primal, unnameable god, for which more generally see A. D. Nock, "The Exegesis of Timaeus 28 C," Vigiliae Christianae, 16/2 , 79-86, and now W. Fauth, Demogorgon: Wanderungen und Wandlungen eines Deus Maximus Magorum in der abendländischen Literatur = Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen I, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, 5 , 58-90). For a Renaissance text actually naming Ovid's Demiurge (see 1/1 note, above) as "sou'raigne God Demogorgon," see the paraphrase of Metamorphoses Book I in Abraham France, The third part of the Countesse of Pembrokes Yuychurch (London, 1592), sig. A2v. Aristorides. This (="Aristor's son") is another name for Argus (cf. 1/17); modern editions generally keep the MSS. reading "Arestorides."
1/19 Argus Killed, Io Restored. [1.713-27]
1/19a Epaphus and Phaethon. [1.747-64]
Book II. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
2/1 Phaethon's Request. [2.1-102]
2/2 Phaethon Kindles the World Top to Bottom. [2.150-318]
2/3 Phaethon's Fall. [2.319-28]. Click here for other notable reckonings with this theme in art.
2/4 Heliades into Trees. [2.333-66]. This is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563.
2/4a Cygnus into a Swan. [2.367-80]
2/5 Apollo Denies the World Light. [2.381-400]
2/6 Jupiter Grabs Callisto. [2.401-40]
2/6a Diana Discovers Callisto's Pregnancy. [2.441-65]. This scene figures in several early pictorial Ovids, some related Urbino maiolica, Titian, Goltzius, de Passe, Bril, Rubens, and Baur among others (see the ICONOS site for additional versions), but is lacking in Salomon-Solis. (For the relation between Rubens' various versions and Titian's see now Jeremy Wood, Rubens: Drawing on Italy [Glasgow, 2002], 71-72.) The extreme fascination of this scene for Renaissance viewers is well-documented in Sluijter's Seduction of Sight; it undoubtedly owes something to the Renaissance notion that normal conception requires feminine sexual climax, as if Callisto's abruptly exposed pregnancy further shockingly proves her complicit in Jupiter's lust. De Passe (wrongly) joins Goltzius' scene with the legend for 2/7 out of Posthius; our page links to a reprint of de Passe which next wrongly joins Goltzius' scene with the legend for 9/5 (Alcmene).
2/7 Callisto Is Turned to a Bear. [2.466-95]
2/8 Callisto and Arcas Made Stars. [2.496-530]
2/8a Juno Complains to Oceanus. [2.508-30]. Goltzius' design was the ultimate model for a pair of late-seventeenth-century tapestries by Hendrick II Reydams detailed in a Christie's auction catalog, Bernard Blondeel and Armand Deroyan: Important Tapestries and Carpets (London, 2003), 116-17.
2/8b Coronis Observed with her Lover. [2.542-47, 596-99]
2/9 Erichthonius is Shut in a Chest. [2.552-61]
2/10 Coronis Is Turned to a Crow. [2.569-88]
2/10a Nyctimine into an Owl. [2.566-95]
2/11 Coronis Is Transfixed by Apollo. [2.598-611]
2/12 Chiron's Daughter Ocyrrhoe into a Mare. [2.633-75]
2/12a Apollo into a Herdsman. [2.677-85]. Cf. 6/0s.
2/13 Battus into a Stone. [2.683-707]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
2/14 Mercury Falls in Love with Herse. [2.708-51]
2/15 Description of Malice and Envy. [2.752-86]
2/16 Aglauros into a Stone. [2.787-832]
2/17 Jupiter into a Bull. [2.836-75]. Since Europa in myth was borne off from Phoenicia to Crete, the famous image of Europa on Jupiter's back is already employed as a symbol of Sidon, Phoenicia, in Ovid's own era and beyond (Caracalla tetradrachm, 215-17 AD; another example, with description). For three wide-ranging views of Europa in art see the lavish ICONOS and Musagora websites and Christian de Bartillat and Alain Roba, Métamorphoses d'Europe: 30 siècles d'iconographie (Turin, 2000; link supplied thanks to Alain Roba).
Book III. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
3/0 Cadmus En Route from the Oracle. [3.1-49]
3/1 A Snake Kills Cadmus' Comrades. [3.1-49]
3/2 The Serpent is Killed by Cadmus. [3.50-94]. Solis' woodcut is closely reproduced on a porcelain cup (Du Paquier / A. J. Schulz, 1722; Regensburg, Thurn und Taxis Museum) in the Eichstätter Datenbank (for a slightly later Meissen example see on 1/15); Baur's depictions of Cadmus are more or less closely reproduced in a mural program by Carpoforo Tencalla in the Burg Cervený Kamen in Slovakia (Jozef Medvecký, "Die frühbarocken Fresken auf der Burg Cervený Kamen und ihre Ikonographie," ARS 3 , 237-311).
3/3 Soldiers Spring from the Serpent's Teeth. [3.95-114]. Sandys recalls how Erasmus links these "dragon's teeth" to the letters of the alphabet, something Cadmus was thought to have brought into Greece from Phoenicia (De recta pronuntiatione, Opera Omnia, 10 vols. [Leyden, 1703], 1.927); also see Alciati, Emblemata 186, and the reference in Milton's Areopagitica.
3/3a Leander and Hero. Not here in Ovid, this theme enters late-medieval Ovid cycles apparently to parallel the sad story of Pyramus and Thisbe (4/2).
3/4 Acteon into a Stag. [3.138-205]. With the ICONOS site see this page for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
3/5 Acteon Is Torn Apart by His Own Hounds. [3.206-52]
3/6 Semele Is Killed in Jove's Embrace. [3.253-309]. The "Semele Complex": the fascination of what lays us low. Solis' woodcut is more or less closely reproduced as a porcelain figure (Meissen, 19th-c., private collection).
3/6a The Birth of Bacchus. [3.310-315].
3/6b Jove Contending with Juno. [3.318-23]
3/6c Tiresias Called On to Arbitrate. [3.322-23]
3/6d Tiresias into a Woman. [3.324-30]
3/7 Narcissus into a Flower. [3.339-510]. With the ICONOS site see this page for additional reckonings with this theme in art. There is a remarkable colored print of this scene by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Narcisse" and "Borcht").
3/7a Echo into a Voice. [3.393-401]. This pictorial theme enters later Ovid cycles apparently by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655), but see Sandys' 1632 synoptic tableau and the rather different image in Lebrun-Le Clerc (1676).
3/8 Bacchus' Rites or Triumph. [3.511-63]. See the richly contextualized image-repertoire "Figures d'Ariane" (Bacchus' lover Ariadne) at the Académie de Nancy-Metz.
3/9 Tyrrhenian Sailors into Dolphins. [3.597-691]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
3/10 Pentheus Is Torn Apart by Bacchantes. [3.692-733]
Book IV. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
4/0 Derceto and Nais into Fish. [4.45-51]
4/0a Semiramis into a Dove. [4.47-48]
4/1 Pyramus and Thisbe. [4.55-101]
4/2 Pyramus and Thisbe's Death. [4.102-66] Page 48r [image]. In an irreverent commentary on the emotionalism of this tale (cf. Ovid 4.121-24, likening hemorrhaging Pyramus to a burst water-main), Solis-Salomon parallels the gush of the blood from Thisbe's breast with the arc of the Manneken Pis or the pissing-boy fountain behind her. For a range of responses to this tale in the visual arts of the era, see the elegant Góngora website. There is a remarkable colored print of this scene by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Thisbe" and "Borcht").
4/2a Sol Reveals Venus' Adultery. [4.169-76]
4/3 Venus' Adultery with Mars. [4.169-89]. This is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563 (cf. Daumier's burlesques 1 and 2).
4/4 Leucothoe into an Incense Branch. [4.190-255]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Page 50r [lemma]. The misprint here (Leucothea, "White Goddess") may help to explain the curiously uplifting motto (Casta Placent Superis or "Chaste Things Please the Gods") which accompanies this scandalous image in Reusner's 1581 Emblemata 2.5, citing two more conventional paragons, Joseph and Bellerophon. P. Berchorius (Ovidius Moralisatus) has a similarly charitable and perforce metaphorical reading of Leucothoe's liaison with Apollo, but that reading is the last among several Berchorius offers.
4/4a Clytie into a Sunflower. [4.256-73]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
http://www.stoa.org/diotima/essays/wilde.shtml 4/4b Daphnis into a Stone. [4.276-78]
4/4c Scython First Man Then Woman. [4.279-80]. Pre-modern texts of Ovid are virtually unanimous in preferring the reading Scython to the nondescript Sit(h)on or Phiton; though Berchorius uniquely expands on this tale as a Ganymede-rapture of some sort, the reading Scython points far more directly to the "Scythian disease" or androgyny-syndrome discussed by Hippocrates (Airs Waters Places 22), Herodotus (1.105, 4.67), and Aristotle (NE 7.8, 1150b), and conjecturally linked in more recent accounts to the Scythian-Amazon ties that Herodotus goes on to allege (4.110-17). In the context of Ovid's Met. 4 (see the sequence of treatments in Benserade-Le Clerc-Krauss) any reference to Scythian androgyny would help set up the next Eastern tale of Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, with its central theme also androgyny.
4/4d Celmus into a Diamond. [4.281-82]
4/4e Crocus and Smilax into Flowers. [4.283-84]
4/5 Salmacis and Hermaphroditus Become One. [4.271-388]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Page 51r [image]. The design of this woodcut looks much like a mirror-image template for one half at least of the opulent painting that we use on our masthead, a studio sibling of the famous Agostino Carracci's 1599 engraving "Omnia Vincit Amor" or "Love Conquers All." (The other half of Carracci's design with its play on "Pan" / "All" being conquered by Cupid has a model in Achille Bocchi's Symbolicarum Quaestionum [Bologna, 1574], #75 ["Omnia cui cedunt," "To Whom All Things Yield"], but Carracci combines this crude rebus with an interesting hint that Salmacis' trans-gendering passion may bear out Love's dominion just as well.) This may be the same painting once owned by Lord Feversham at Duncombe Park, Yorkshire (Dr. [Gustav] Waagen, Galleries and Cabinets of Art in Great Britain . . . Forming a Supplemental Volume to the Treasures of Art in Great Britain, Three Volumes [London, 1857], 492; cf. Denis Mahon, Mostra dei Carracci . . . catalogo critico dei disegni, tr. M. Calvesi, 2nd ed. [Bologna, 1963], no. 259). Another Salmacis-engraving from Solis' own circle adopts a design very similar to this one from 1563; see O'Dell-Franke's index, s. n. On the frontispiece of Christopher Saxton's Atlas of 1579, the same Salmacis-pattern emerges in still better company, just above Queen Elizabeth's head, in an emblem depicting the kiss of personified Justice and Peace from Ps. 84(85):11 (similar allegorical couplings by Goltzius ca. 1582 in The Illustrated Bartsch, 165 vols. [New York, 1978- ], Vol. III, 110-17); Stephen Orgel's extended and helpful discussion of this very emblem mentions none of the image-connections which I have just noted ("Gendering the Crown," in Subject and Object in Renaissance Culture, ed. M. de Grazia et al. [Cambridge, 1996], 133-65, naming this emblem Orgel's "real subject" at 149).
4/5a Minyades into Bats. [4.389-415]
4/6 Juno and the Three Furies. [4.432-80]. Like the supplement preceding this rubric in a Metamorphosis ill. Solis from 1581, Pieter van der Borcht's entry for this rubric in 1591 renders Juno's descent into Hell an occasion to foreground great sinners of myth, e. g. Tantalus (see on 6/1a, below), Tityus, and Ixion; with the note on 14/2 see the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with these figures in art.
4/7 Athamas and Ino Are Driven Insane. [4.481-511]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
4/8 Mad Athamas Kills His Son Learchus. [4.512-19]
4/8a Ino and Melicerte into Sea-Gods. [4.543-62]
4/8b Ino's Attendants into Rocks and Birds. [4.512-62]
4/9 Cadmus and Hermione into Dragons. [4.563-603]
4/9a Jupiter into a Golden Shower. [6.113]. Jove's affair with Danae the mother of Perseus is often represented in painting (where the golden shower frequently signifies payment for sexual favors), but rarely in the Ovidian cycles; click here for additional views of Danae and Zeus.
4/10 Atlas Is Turned into the Mountain of the Same Name. [4.627-62]
4/11 Perseus Freeing Andromeda. [4.663-734] Page 57r [image]. Not surprisingly, this piquant scene of heroic deliverance from bondage is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563. For other notable reckonings with this theme in art see A. Matthieu's sensational Andromeda web-gallery, and with Sluijter cf. Adrienne Munich, Andromeda's Chains: Gender and Interpretation in Victorian Literature and Art (New York, 1989), and Françoise Siguret and Alain Laframboise, eds., Andromède, ou, Le héros à l'épreuve de la beauté: actes du colloque international... (Paris, 1996).
4/12 Medusa's Hair into Snakes. [4.765-803]. For Medusa's gaze through the millennia see now Il sito di Medusa.
Book V. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
5/1 A Fight Breaks Out at Perseus' Wedding. [5.1-176]
5/2 Phineus and Friends into Stone. [5.177-235]
5/2a Proetus into a Rock. [5.239-42]
5/2b Polydectes into Stone. [5.243-50]
5/3 Pallas and Sisters at Helicon. [5.250-68]
5/4 The Muses into Birds. [5.269-93]
5/4a Pierides into Magpies. [5.301-05, 663-679]
5/4b The Giants' Feigned Triumphs. [5.320-32]
5/5 Venus, Cupid, and Pluto. [5.346-84]
5/6 Pluto Bears Off Proserpina. [5.385-424] Page 64r [image]. Famously sculpted by Bernini in 1621-22. There is a remarkable colored print of this scene by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Persephone" and "Borcht").
5/6a Cyane into a Fountain. [5.426-38]
5/6b Minthe into a Mint-Plant. [10.728-30]. This appears here in Benserade-Le Clerc-Krauss because Pluto's mistress Minthe was transformed by Proserpina as queen of the Underworld.
5/7 Ceres Seeks Her Daughter. [5.438-61]
5/7a Stelles into a Lizard. [5.452-62]
5/7b Ascalaphus into an Owl. [5.540-51]
5/7c Proserpina's Maids into Sirens. [5.553-64]
5/8 Arethusa into a Fountain. [5.572-641] Page 66r [image]. Also see Arethusa in Transit.
5/8a Triptolemus Shows the Use of Grain. [5.643-50]
5/9 Lyncus into a Lynx. [5.642-61]
Book VI. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
6/0 Arachne into a Spider. [6.1-145]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
6/0a The Contest between Neptune and Minerva. [6.70-82]
6/0b Rhodope and Haemus into Mountains. [6.87-89]
6/0c Pygme into a Crane. [6.90-92]
6/0d Antigone into a Stork. [6.93-97]
6/0e Cynaras. [6.98-100]
6/0f Asterie into a Hawk. [6.108]
6/0g Jupiter into a Swan. [6.109]. Click here and here (searching "Leda") for additional ancient and Renaissance visions of Leda and Zeus.
6/0h Jupiter into a Satyr. [6.110-11]
6/0i Jupiter into the Figure of Amphitryo. [6.112]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
6/0j Jupiter into Gold. [6.113]. See on 4/9a.
6/0k Jupiter into Fire. [6.113]
6/0l Jupiter into a Herdsman. [6.114]
6/0m Jupiter into a Serpent. [6.114 ]
6/0n Neptune into a Young Bull. [6.115-16]
6/0o Neptune into the Figure of the River Enipeus. [6.116-17]
6/0p Neptune into a Ram. [6.117]
6/0q Neptune into a Horse. [6.118-19]
6/0r Neptune into a Dolphin. [6.120]
6/0s Apollo into a Shepherd. [6.124 ]. Cf. 2/12a, with the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in poetry and art.
6/0t Bacchus into a Vine. [6.125]
6/0u Saturn into a Horse. [6.126]
6/1 Niobe Is Slain with Her Children. [6.146-312]
6/1a Tantalus Plagued with Hunger and Thirst. [6.172-73]. See on 4/6, above. Niobe's father Tantalus, proud to dine with the gods, damned himself when he served them his slaughtered son Pelops for dinner.
6/1b Pelops Slaughtered but Brought Back to Life. See on 6/1a.
6/1c Amphion. [6.221]. Not here in Ovid, introduced because Amphion the magical builder is Niobe's husband, this theme of erecting Thebes' walls with the harp enters later Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
6/2 Lycian Rustics into Frogs. [6.313-81]
6/2a Marsyas' Singing-Contest with Phoebus. [6.382-85]
6/3 Marsyas Is Flayed by Apollo. [6.385-400]
6/4 Tereus, Procne, Three Furies. [6.424-38]
6/5 Tereus Abducts Philomela. [6.438-510]
6/6 Tereus Cuts Out Philomela's Tongue. [6.511-62]
6/7 Procne Freeing Philomela from Captivity. [6.563-619]
6/8 Procne Kills Her Own Offspring. [6.619-62]
6/8a Philomela into a Nightingale. [6.669-70].
6/9 Orithyia Is Raped by Boreas. [6.675-72]
Book VII. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
7/0 Harpies. [7.3-4]
7/1 Jason and Medea. [7.1-99]
7/2 Jason Puts the Dragon to Sleep. [7.149-58]
7/3 Medea Calls On the Gods' Aid. [7.179-237]
7/4 Old Aeson Is Rejuvenated. [7.238-93]
7/4a Bacchus' Nurses Rejuvenated. [7.294-96]
7/4b The Chimaera. Not here in Ovid.
7/5 Pelias with His Daughters. [7.297-349]
7/5a Cerambus into a Bird. [7.353-55]
7/5b A Dragon into a Rock. [7.358]
7/5c A Bull into a Stag. [7.359-60]
7/5d Mera into a Dog. [7.362]
7/5e Women of Cos into Cows. [7.363-64]
7/5f Telchines into Rocks. [7.365-67]
7/5g Alcidamas' Daughter. [7.368-69]
7/6 Hiere's Son Cygnus into a Swan. [7.371-79]
7/6a Compe [Combe] into a Bird. [7.382-83]
7/6b Menephron into a Wild Animal. [7.386-87]
7/6c Eumelus' Daughter into a Bird. [7.390]
7/7 Medea Kills Her Own Children. [7.391-401]
7/7a Medea Attempts Theseus' Life. [7.404-24]. This scene figures in Dolce, Lepautre, and Baur, not in Salomon-Solis.
7/8 Hercules and Cerberus. [7.404-15]
7/8a Scyron into a Rock. [7.440-47]
7/8b Arne into a Jackdaw. [7.465-68]
7/9 Minos, Cephalus, and Aeacus. [7.490-500]. See on 7/9a.
7/9a Danaides. Pictured here among other damned souls, the fifty Danaides were supposed to have murdered their husbands on their wedding-night; they appear here in Benserade-Le Clerc-Krauss by association with Minos, Aeacus, and Rhadamanthus (7/9), who in death were made judges of the Underworld.
7/10 The Plague in Aegina. [7.523-613]
7/11 Ants into Men. [7.614-60]
7/12 Cephalus and Aurora. [7.690-713]
7/12a Tithonus into a Grasshopper. Not here in Ovid (but cf. Ovid's mention of Tithonus' frustrated spouse Dawn or Aurora in 7.703), this pictorial theme enters later Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
7/13 Cephalus and Procris. [7.714-56]
7/14 Procris' Death. [7.757-865]
Book VIII. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
8/1 Scylla and Minos. [8.1-80]
8/2 Scylla Cuts Off her Father's Lock. [8.81-103]
8/3 Scylla into a Bird. [8.104-51]
8/3a Pasiphae. [8.135-36]
8/4 Theseus Defeats the Minotaur. [8.152-82]
8/4a Ariadne Abandoned. [8.173-75]
8/4b Bacchus and Ariadne. [8.175-76]
8/4c Ariadne's Crown into a Constellation. [8.176-81]
8/5 Daedalus and Icarus. [8.183-235]. Click here for a rich archive of Icarus depictions (K. De Boel - Josette Donné); there is also a remarkable colored print of the theme by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Dedale" and "Borcht").
8/5a Oeneus Neglects Diana. This pictorial theme enters later Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
8/6 The Boy Perdix into a Bird. [8.236-59]
8/7 Hunting Meleager Kills a Boar. [8.270-424]
8/8 Meleager and Atalanta. [8.425-44]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
8/9 Meleager's Death. [8.445-546]
8/9a The Three Fates. [8.451-56]
8/10 Perimele into an Island. [8.547-610]
8/10a Naiades into Islands. [8.572-88]
8/11 Jupiter and Mercury as Guests. [8.611-78]
8/12 Philemon and Baucis to Trees. [8.679-709]. Click here for other notable reckonings with this theme in art.
8/12a Proteus. [8.716-22]
8/13 Erysichthon Cuts Down the Oak. [8.725-76]
8/14 Description of Hunger. [8.777-813]
8/15 Erysichthon Is Tortured with Insatiable Hunger. [8.814-42]
8/16 Metra into Many Different Figures. [8.843-78]
Book IX. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
9/1 Hercules and Achelous. [9.1-97]
9/1a Horn of Plenty. [8.86-88]
9/2 Centaur Nessus Shot with an Arrow. [9.98-133]
9/2a Ixion. [9.123-24]
9/2b Antaeus Crushed. [9.183-184]
9/3 Lychas Hurled into the Waves. [9.229-38]
9/4 Apotheosis of Hercules. [9.239-72]
9/4a The Feats of Hercules. With a glance at the traditional round of twelve labors, this scene was introduced by Lebrun as a kind of summation of Ovid's lines bearing on Hercules. Lebrun's scheme seems derived from a 1634 painting by Claude Vignon, The Triumph of Hercules, now in the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, honoring Richelieu for crushing his enemies; also see this anonymous slightly later version in the Pomona College Museum of Art.
9/5 Alcmene Bears Hercules. [9.275-323]
9/5a Galanthis into a Weasel. [9.322-23]
9/6 Dryope into a Tree. [9.329-93]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
9/6a Iolaus Rejuvenated. [9.397-99]
9/6b Amphiaraus the Soothsayer. [9.406-07]
9/6c Callirhoe. [9.431-32]
9/7 Biblis' Love for her Brother. [9.454-640]
9/8 Biblis into a Fountain. [9.641-65]
9/9 Lyctus and Telethusa His Wife. [9.666-701]
9/10 The Girl Iphis into a Man. [9.702-97]
Book X. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
10/1 Eurydice Dies from a Snakebite. [10.1-10] Page 117r. Orpheus. For this figure's fortuna in other ancient and Renaissance contexts, see now Famous Orpheus: Some Points of Departure. Spreng's pejorative reading of Eurydice as a fallible Eve is conventional among Christian moralizers; see esp. John Block Friedman, Orpheus in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, MA, 1970), s. nn.
10/2 Orpheus Descends to the Underworld. [10.11-63]
10/2a The Furies. [10.46]
10/2b Olenus and Lethaea into Rocks. [10.68-71]
10/3 Orpheus Playing the Lyre. [10.86-105, 143-44]. Baur's engraving is closely reproduced on a jug (Auffenwerth, ca. 1740; Würzburg, Mainfränkische Museum) in the Eichstätter Datenbank. Page 119v. Regius uates ["royal bard"]. The psalmist King David, who is standardly likened to Orpheus. Spreng makes Orpheus' aversion to women tantamount to conversion to God, and avoids any mention of his pederasty; contrast Dürer ("Orpheus the first homosexual [puseran]"), and see G. Scavizzi's discussion ("The Myth of Orpheus in Italian Renaissance Art, 1400-1600" [Orpheus: The Metamorphoses of a Myth, ed. John Warden (Toronto, 1982), 111-62]).
10/3a Attis into a Tree. [10.104-05]
10/4 The Boy Cyparissus into a Tree. [10.106-42]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art. Page 120r. Sacratas ["Consecrated"]. Surely an error for Sacratus, to modify ceruus ="deer" (see Spreng's preceding prose); we here translate accordingly.
10/5 Ganymede Carried Off into Heaven. [10.155-61]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
10/6 Hyacinthus into a Flower. [10.162-219]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
10/7 Cerastae into Cows. [10.220-37]
10/7a Propoetides into Rocks. [10.238-42]
10/8 Ivory Statue into a Person. [10.243-97]. With the ICONOS site see Pygmalion (German site) and Pygmalion Design for additional reckonings with this theme in art. This is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563.
10/9 Myrrha Tries to Hang Herself. [10.298-430]
10/10 Myrrha Goes to Bed with Her Father. [10.431-70]
10/11 Myrrha into a Tree. [10.471-518]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
10/12 Venus and Adonis. [10.519-59]
10/13 Atalanta and Hippomenes. [10.560-680]
10/13a Minthe into a Mint-Plant. See on 5/6b.
10/14 Hippomenes and Atalanta into Lions. [10.681-704]
10/15 Adonis into Anemone Flower. [10.705-39]. Salomon's woodcut is more or less closely reproduced as a porcelain figure (Samson, 19th-c.?, private collection).
Book XI. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
11/1 Orpheus Is Slain by Female Bacchantes. [11.1-43]
11/1a Thracian Women into Trees. [11.67-84]
11/2 The Hebrus Receives Orpheus' Head and Lyre. [11.44-66]
11/3 Midas' Wish. [11.85-145]
11/4 Midas' Ears into Ass's. [11.146-79]
11/4a The Reeds Learn to Talk. [11.180-93]
11/5 Neptune and Apollo. [11.194-220]
11/6 Peleus and Thetis. [11.221-65]
11/7 Chione Slain by the Arrows of Diana. [11.291-327]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
11/7a Daedalion. [11.328-45]
11/8 A Wolf into Stone. [11.346-409]
11/8a Penelope. Not here in Ovid, this theme enters Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
11/8b Endymion. Not here in Ovid, this theme enters Ovid cycles by way of Marolles' Temple des Muses (Paris, 1655).
11/9 Ceyx Dies in a Shipwreck. [11.410-572]
11/10 Halcyone Supplicates Juno. [11.573-82]
11/11 Description of the House of Sleep. [11.583-632]
11/12 Ceyx and his Wife into Halcyons. [11.633-748]
11/13 Aesacus into a Diver-Bird. [11.749-95]
Book XII. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
12/1 The Sacrifice of Iphigeneia. [12.24-38]
12/1a The House of Fame. [12.39-63]
12/2 The War of Greeks and Trojans. [12.64-71]
12/3 Cygnus Smothered by Achilles. [12.71-145]
12/4 The Girl Caenis into a Man. [12.89-209]
12/5 The Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs. [12.210-535]
12/5a Cylarus and Hylonome. [12.393-428]
12/5b Periclymenus into an Eagle. [12.556-72]
12/5c The Death of Achilles. [12.579-628]
Book XIII. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
13/1 Ajax's Quarrel with Ulysses. [13.1-381.]
13/1a Achilles in Women's Clothing. [13.162-70]
13/2 The Shield of Achilles. [13.280-95?]
13/3 Ajax Kills Himself. [13.382-98]. See on 1/15.
13/4 The Fall of Troy. [13.399-428]
13/5 Polymestor's Wickedness. [13.429-38]
13/6 Polyxena Is Sacrificed. [13.439-532]
13/7 Hecuba Finds Polydorus Murdered. [13.533-44]. There is a remarkable colored print of this scene by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Hecube" and "Borcht").
13/8 Polymestor Is Blinded. [13.545-64]
13/8a Hecuba into a Dog. [13.565-71]
13/9 Embers of Memnon's Pyre into Birds. [13.576-622]
13/10 Aeneas' Piety toward His Father. [13.623-31] Page 156r [image]. The same scene was sculpted by Bernini in 1618-19, and there is a remarkable colored print of the theme by Pieter van der Borcht in the Bibliothèque Municipale de Lyon (base Estampes, recherche avancée search-terms "Enee" and "Borcht").
13/10a Aeneas Pays a Visit to Anius. [13.623-35]
13/10b Aniades into Doves. [13.640-74]. Aniades misidentified as Maeonides (Muses [cf. 5/4]) in Tempesta 127; but see Renouard's view of the Aniades.
13/10c Orion's Daughters into Youths. [13.692-99]
13/10d The Judgment of Paris. Not here in Ovid's own text, but in more than one early pictorial Ovid; see also de Passe.
13/10e The Ambracian Judge into Stone. [13.713-15]
13/11 Polyphemus, Acis and Galatea. [13.719-37]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
13/12 Acis into a River. [13.739-897]
13/13 Fisherman Glaucus into a Sea-God. [13.898-968]
Book XIV. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
14/0 Circe Sizes Up Glaucus. [14.8-39]
14/1 Scylla into a Sea-Monster. [14.1-74]. This image is one of six images bowdlerized in our copy of 1563.
14/1a Cercopes into Apes. [14.91-100]
14/1b Aeneas' Meeting with Dido at Carthage. [14.75-80]
14/1ba The Death of Dido. [14.79-81]
14/1c The Sybil and Apollo. [14.101-53]. See the ICONOS site for additional reckonings with this theme in art.
14/1d Aeneas' Descent to the Underworld. [14.104-19]
14/2 Polyphemus Devours Ulysses' Comrades. [14.154-220]. This image is apparently preceded with three supplementary images (probably from an illustrated Aeneid) in a Metamorphosis ill. Solis from 1581: Dido and Aeneas, Aeneas in the Underworld (cf. on 4/6), and The Wanderings of Aeneas
14/2a The Winds Shut in a Bag. [14.223-32]
14/2aa Ulysses among the Laestrygons. [14.233-43]
14/2b Ulysses' Mates Visit Circe. [14.248-53]
14/3 Ulysses' Crew into Swine. [14.254-87]
14/3a Picus Spurns Circe's Wooing. [14.320-96]
14/4 Picus into a Bird. [14.320-96]. Baur-Aubry 1703 confounds this and the following image with Circe's effects on Odysseus' men.
14/4a Picus' Mates into Beasts. [14.320-96]
14/4b Canens into Air. [14.397-434]
14/4c Diomedes' Companions into Seahawks. [14.483-511]
14/5 Apulus into a Wild-Olive. [14.512-26]
14/6 The Fleet of Aeneas into Nymphs. [14.539-65]
14/6a The City Ardea into a Bird. [14.573-80]
14/7 Aeneas into a National Deity. [14.581-608]
14/8 Vertumnus into an Old Woman. [14.609-97, 765-71]
14/9 Iphis Hangs Himself. [14.698-758]
14/9a Anarexete into a Stone. [14.749-61]
14/10 Romulus Is Given Immortality. [14.805-28]
14/11 Hersilia into the Goddess Ora. [14.829-51]
Book XV. Tableau, Sandys' Ovids Metamorphosis Englished (1632).
15/0 Myscelus' Black Stones into White. [15.497-546]
15/1 Hippolytus [Virbius] Torn Apart by His Horses. [15.497-546]
15/1a Egeria into a Fountain. [15.547-51]
15/1b Tages. [15.553-59]
15/2 Cippus Sporting Horns. [15.547-621]
15/3 Aesculapius Entered among Deities. [15.622-62]
15/4 Aesculapius into a Serpent. [15.663-744]
15/5 Julius Caesar into a Star. [15.745-870]. Preceding this last metamorphosis there is a supplement depicting a phoenix in a Metamorphosis ill. Solis from 1581.