Omnia Vincit Amor Ovid Illustrated: The Renaissance Reception
of Ovid in Image and Text

George Sandys, Ovid's Metamorphosis (1632)

An Online Edition
Daniel Kinney, Director
Special Thanks to Alison Caviness, Zack Long, Keicy Tolbert, and the Many Resident Experts of U.Va.'s E-Text Staff

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The first Booke.

The World, form'd out of Chaos. Man is made.
The Ages change. The Giants Heauen inuade.
Earth turnes their blood to men. Ioue's flames confound
Lycaon, now a Wolfe. The World is drown'd.
Man-kind, cast stones restore. All quickning Earth
Renewes the rest, and giues new Monsters birth.
Apollo, Python kills; heart-wounded, loues
Lust-flying Daphne; Shee a Lawrell proues.
Ioue, Iö made a Cow, to maske foule deeds.
Hermes, a Heardsman. Syrinx, chang'd to Reeds.
Dead Argu's eyes adorne the Peacocks traine.
The Cow, to Iö, Ioue transformes againe.

Of bodies chang'd to other shapes I sing.
Assist, you Gods (from you these changes spring)1
And, from the Worlds first fabrick to these times,2
Deduce my neuer-discontinued Rymes.
    The Sea, the Earth, all-couering Heauen vnfram'd,
One face had Nature, which they Chaos nam'd:  CHAOS  
An vndigested lump; a barren load,
Where iarring seeds of things ill-ioyn'd aboad.
No Titan3 yet the world with light adornes;
Nor waxing Phoebe4 fill'd her wained hornes:
Nor hung the selfe-poiz'd Earth in thin Ayre plac'd;
Nor Amphitrite5 the vast shore imbrac'd.
With Earth, was Ayre and Sea: the Earth vnstable,
The Ayre was darke, the Sea vn-nauigable:
No certaine forme to any one assign'd:
This, that resists. For, in one body ioyn'd,
The Cold and Hot, the Drie and Humid fight;
The Soft and Hard, the Heauie with the Light.
But God, the better Nature, this decides:
Who Earth from Heauen, the Sea from earth diuides:  THE 4 ELEMENTS  
And purer Heauen extracts from grosser Ayre.
All which vnfolded by his prudent care
From that blind Masse; the happily dis-ioyn'd
With strifelesse peace He to their seats confin'd.
Forth-with vp-sprung the quick and waightlesse Fire,
Whose flames vnto the highest Arch aspire:
The next, in leuitie and place, is Ayre:
Grosse Elements to thicker Earth repayre
Selfe-clog'd with waight: the Waters flowing round,
Possesse the last, and solid Tellus6 bound.
    What God soeuer this diuision wrought,  THE EARTH ADORNED  
And euery part to due proportion brought;
First, least the Earth vnequall should appeare,
He turn'd it round, in figure of a Spheare;
Then, Seas diffus'd; commanding them to roare
With ruffling Winds, and giue the Land a shore.
To those he addeth Springs, Ponds, Lakes immense;
And Riuers, whom their winding borders fence:
Of these, not few Earth's thirty iawes deuoure;
The rest, their streams into the Ocean poure;
When, in that liquid Plaine, with freer waue,
The foamie Cliffes, in stead of Banks, they laue:
Bid's Trees increase to Woods, the Plaines extend,
The rocky Mountaynes rise, and Vales descend.
    Two equall Zones,7 on either side, dispose  THE 5 ZONES  
The measur'd Heauens; a fifth, more hot then those.
As many Lines th' included Globe diuide:
I'th' midst vnsufferable beams reside;
Snow clothes the other two: the temperate hold
'Twixt these their seats, the Heat well mixt with Cold.
    As Earth, as Water, vpper Ayre out-waighs;  THE DESCRIPTION OF THE AYRE  
So much doth Ayre Fire's lighter balance raise.
There, He commands the changing Clouds to stray;
There, thundering terrors mortall mindes dismay;
And with the Lightning, Winds ingendring Snow:
Yet not permitted euery way to blow;
Who hardly now to teare the World refraine
(So Brothers8 iarre!) though they diuided raigne,
To Persis and Sabaea, Eurus9 flies;
Whose gums perfume the blushing Mornes vp-rise
Next to the Euening, and the Coast that glowes
With setting Phoebus, flowrie Zeph'rus10 blowes:
In Scythia horrid Boreas11 holds his raigne,
Beneath Boötes12 and the frozen Waine:13
The Land to this oppos'd, doth Auster14 steepe
With fruitfull showres, and clouds which euer weepe.
Aboue all these he plac't the liquid Skies;  THE HEAVENS AND THEIR CONTENTS  
Which, void of earthly dregs, did highest rise.
    Scarce had He all thus orderly dispos'd;
When as the Starres their radiant heads disclos'd
(Long hid in Night) and shone through all the skie.
Then, that no place should vnpossessed lie,
Bright Constellations, and faire figured Gods,
In heauenly Mansions fixt their blest abodes:
The glittering Fishes to the Flouds repayre;
The Beasts to Earth, the Birds resort to Ayre.
    The nobler Creature, with a mind possest,  MAN CREATED  
Was wanting yet, that should command the rest.
That Maker, the best World's originall,
Either Him fram'd of seed Caelestiall;
Or Earth, which late he did from Heauen diuide,
Some sacred seeds retain'd, to Heauen ally'd:
Which with the liuing streame Prometheus mixt;
And in that artificiall structure fixt
The forme of all th' all-ruling Deities.
And whereas others see with downe-cast eyes,
He with a loftie looke did Man indue,
And bade him heauens transcendent glories view:
So, that rude Clay, which had no forme afore,
Thus chang'd, of Man the vnknowne figure bore.
    The Golden Age was first; which vncompeld,  THE 4 AGES  
And without rule, in faith and Truth exceld.
As then, there was nor punishment, nor feare;
Nor threatning Lawes15 in brasse prescribed were;
Nor suppliant crouching pris'ners shooke to see
Their angrie Iudge: but all was safe and free.
To visit other Worlds, no wounded Pine16
Did yet from Hills to faithless Seas decline.
Then, vn-ambitious Mortals knew no more,
But their owne Countrie's Nature-bounded shore.
Nor Swords, nor Armes were yet: no trenches round
Besieged Townes, nor strifefull Trumpets sound:
The Souldier, of no vse. In firme content
And harmless ease, their happy daies were spent.
The yet-free Earth did of her owne accord
(Vntorne with ploughs) all sorts of fruit afford.
Content with Natures vn-enforced food,
They gather Wildings,17 Strawb'ries of the Wood,
Sowre Cornels,18 what vpon the Bramble growes,
And Acornes, which Ioue's spreading Oke19 bestowes.
'Twas alwaies Spring: warme Zephyrus20 sweetly blew
On smiling flowres, which without setting grew.
Forth-with the Earth corne, vnmanured, beares;
And euery yeere renewes her golden Eares:
With Milke and Nectar21 were the Riuers fill'd;
And Hony from greene Holly-okes22 distill'd.
But, after Saturne was throwne downe to Hell,
Ioue rul'd; and then the Siluer Age befell:
More base then Gold, and yet then Brasse more pure.
Ioue chang'd the Spring (which alwayes did indure)
To Winter, Summer, Autumne hot and cold:
The shortned Springs the year's fourth part vphold.
Then, first the glowing Ayre with feruor burn'd
The Raine to ice-sicles by bleake winds turn'd.
Men houses built; late hous'd in caues profound,
In plashed Bowres, and Sheds with Osiers bound.
Then, first was corne into long furrowes throwne
And Oxen vnder heauy yokes did growne.
    Next vnto this succeeds the Brazen Age;
Worse natur'd, prompt to horrid warre, and rage:
But yet not wicked. Stubborne Yr'n the last.
Then, blushlesse crimes, which all degrees surpast,
The World surround. Shame, Truth, and Faith depart:
Fraud enters, ignorant in no bad Art;
Force, Treason, and the wicked loue of gayne.
Their sailes, those winds, which yet they knew not, strayne:
And ships, which long on lofty Mountaines stood,23
Then plow'd th' vnpractiz'd bosom of the Flood.
The Ground, as common earst as Light, or Aire,
By limit-giuing Geometry24 they snare.
Nor with rich Earth's iust nourishments content,
For treasure they her secret entrailes rent;25
The powerfull Euill, which all power inuades,
By her well hid, and wrapt in Stygian26 shades.
Curst Steele, more cursed Gold she now forth brought:
And bloody-handed Warre, who with both fought
All liue by spoyle. The Host his Guest betrayes;
Sons, Fathers-in-lawe: 'twixt Brethren loue decayes.
Wiues husbands, Husbands wiues attempt to kill:
And cruell Step-mothers pale poysons fill.
The Sonne his Fathers hastie death desires:
Foild Pietie, trod vnderfoot, expires.
Astraea,27 last of all the heauenly birth,
Affrighted, leaues the blood-defiled Earth.
    And that the Heauens their safety might suspect,
The Gyants now coelestiall Thrones affect;  THE WARRES OF THE GYANTS  
Who to the skies congested mountaines reare.
Then Ioue with thunder did Olympus28 teare;
Steepe Pelion28 from vnder Ossa28 throwne.
Prest with their burthen29 their huge bodies growne;
And with her Childrens blood the Earth imbru'd:
Which shee, scarce throughly cold, with life indu'd;
And gaue thereto, t'vphold her Stock; the face
And forme of Man; a God-contemning Race,
Greedie of slaughter, not to be withstood;
Such, as well shewes, that they were borne of blood.
    Which when from Heauen Saturnius30 did behold;
He sigh't; reuoluing what was yet vntold,
Of fell Lycaon's late inhumane feast.
Iust anger, worthy Ioue, inflam'd his brest.
A Synod call'd, the summoned appeare.  THE PARLAMENT OF THE GODS  
There is a way, well seene when skies be cleare,
The Milkie31 nam'd: by this, the Gods resort
Vnto th' Almightie Thunderers high Court.
With euer-open doors, on either hand,
Of nobler Deities the Houses stand:
The Vulgar dwell disperst: the Chiefe and Great
In front of all, their shining Mansions seat.
This glorious Roofe I would not doubt to call,
Had I but boldnesse lent mee, Heauen's White-Hall.
All set on Marble seats; He, leaning on
His Iuory Scepter, in a higher Throne,
Did twice or thrice his dreadfull Tresses shake:
The Earth, the Sea, the Starres (though fixed) quake;
Then thus, inflam'd with indignation, spake:
    I was not more perplext in that sad Time,
For this Worlds Monarchie, when, bold to clime,
The Serpent-footed Giants durst inuade,
And would on Heauen their hundred hands haue laid.
Though fierce the Foe, yet did that Warre depend
But of one Body, and had soone an end.
Now all the race of man I must confound,
Where-euer Nereus32 walks his wauy Round:
And this I vow by those infernall Floods33
Which slowly glide through silent Stygian woods.
All cures first sought; such parts as health reiect
Must be cut off, least they the sound infect.
Our Demi-gods, Nymphs, Syluans, Satyres, Faunes,34
Who haunt cleare Springs, high Mountaines, Woods and Lawnes
(On whom since yet we please not to bestow
Caelestiall dwellings) must subsist below.
Thinke you, you Gods, they can in safety rest,
When me (of lightning, and of you possest,
Who both at our Imperiall pleasure sway)
The sterne Lycaon practiz'd to betray?
All bluster, and in rage the wretch demand.
So, when bold treason sought, with impious hand,
By Caesar's35 blood t'out-race the Roman name;
Man-kind, and all the World's affrighted Frame,
Astonisht at so great a ruine, shooke.
Nor thine, for Thee, lesse thought, Augustus, tooke,
Then they for Ioue. He, when he had supprest
Their murmur, thus proceeded to the rest.
    He hath his punishment; remit that care:  LYCAON  
The manner how, I will in briefe declare.
The Time's accus'd, (but, as I hop't bely'd)
To trie, I downe from steepe Olympus36 slide.
A God, transform'd like one of humane birth,
I wandred through the many-peopl'd Earth.
'Twere long to tell, what crimes of euery sort
Swarm'd in all parts: the truth exceeds report.
Now past den-dreadfull Maenalus37 confines,
Cyllene,37 cold Lycaeus37 clad with Pines,
There where th' Arcadians dwell, when Doubtfull light38
Drew-on the deawy Charriot of the Night,
I entred his vn-hospitable Court.
The better Vulgar to their prair's resort,
When I by signes had showne a Gods repaire.
Lycaon first derides their zealous pray'r;
Then said, We straight th' vndoubted truth will trie,
Whether He be immortall or may die.
In dead of Night, when all was whist and still,
Me, in my sleepe, he purposeth to kill.
Nor with so foule an enterprize content,
An Hostage murders, from Molossia39 sent:
Part of his seuer'd scarce-dead limmes he boyles;
An other part on hissing Embers broyles;
This set before me, I the house ore-turn'd
With vengefull flames, which round about him burn'd.
He, frighted, to the silent Desart flies;
There howles, and speech with lost indeauour tries.
His selfe-like iawes still grin: more then for food
He slaughters beasts, and yet delights in blood.
His armes to thighs, his clothes to bristles chang'd;
A Wolfe;40 not much from his first forme estrang'd:
So horie hair'd; his lookes so full of rape;
So fiery ey'd; so terrible his shape.
    One house that fate, which all deserue, sustaines:
For, through the World the fierce Erinnys41 raignes.
Youl'd thinke they had conspir'd to sinne. But, all
Shall swiftly by deserued vengeance fall.
Ioue's words a Part approue, and his intent
Exasperate: the rest giue their consent.
Yet all for Mans destruction grieu'd appeare;
And aske what forme the widdowed Earth shall beare?
Who shall with odours their cold Altars feast?
Must Earth be only by wild beasts possest?
The King of Gods re-comforts their despaire;
And biddeth them impose on him that care:
Who promis'd, by a strange originall
Of better people, to supply their fall.
And now about to let his lightning flie,
He fear'd least so much flame should catch the skie,
And burne Heauens Axeltree. Besides, by doome,
Of certaine Fate,42 he knew the time should come,
When, Sea, Earth, rauisht Heauen, the curious Frame
Of this World's masse, should shrinke in purging flame.
He therefore those Cyclopean darts43 reiects;
And different-natur'd punishments elects:
To open all the Flood-gates of the skie,
And Man by inundation to destroy.
    Rough Boreas in Aeolian44 prison laid,  DEVCALIONS FLOOD  
And those drie blasts which gathered Clouds inuade:
Out flyes the South, with dropping wings; who shrouds
His terrible aspect in pitchie clouds.
His white haire stream's, his Beard big-swoln with showres;
Mists bind his browes, Raine from his bosom poures,
As with his hands the hanging clouds he crusht:
They roar'd, and downe in showres together rusht.
All-colour'd Iris,45 Iuno's messenger,
To weeping Clouds doth nourishment confer.
The Corne is lodg'd, the Husband-men despaire;
Their long years labour lost, with all their care.
Ioue, not content with his aethereall rages,
His brother's46 auxil'arie flouds ingages.
The Streames conuented; 'Tis too late to vse
Much speech, said Neptune; all your powres effuse;
Your doores vnbarre, remoue what-ere restraines
Your liberall Waues, and giue them the full raynes
Thus charged, they returne; their Springs vnfold;
And to the Sea with head-long furie rol'd.
He with his Trident47 strikes the Earth: Shee shakes;
And way for Water by her motion makes.
Through open fields now rush the spreading Floods;
And hurrie with them Cattle, People, Woods,
Houses, and Temples with their Gods inclos'd.
What such a force, vn-ouerthrowne, oppos'd,
The higher-swelling Water quite deuoures;
Which hides th' aspiring tops of swallowed towres.
Now Land and Sea no different visage bore:
For, all was Sea, nor had the Sea a shore.
One, takes a Hill: One in a Boat deplores;
And, where He lately plow'd, now strikes his Oares;
O'r Corne, o'r drowned Villages He sailes:
This from high Elmes intangled Fishes hales.
In Fields they anchor cast, as Chance did guide:
And Ships the vnder-lying Vineyards hide.
Where Mountaine-louing Goats did lately graze,
The Sea-calfe now his vgly body layes.
Groues, Citties, Temples, couer'd by the Deepe,
The Nymphs admire; in woods the Delphins keepe,
And chase about the boughs: the Wolfe48 doth swim
Amongst the Sheepe: the Lyon (now not grim)
And Tygres tread the Waues. Swift feet no more
Auaile the Hart; nor wounding tusks the Bore.
The wandring Birds, hid Earth long sought in vaine,
With wearie wings descend into the Mayne.
Licentious Seas o'r drowned Hills now fret
And vnknowne surges ayrie Mountaines beat.
The Waues the greater part deuoure: the rest,
Death, with long-wanted sustenance, opprest.
    The Land of Phocis,49 fruitfull when a Land,  DEVCALION AND PYRRHA  
Diuides Aönia from th' Actaean strand;
But now a part of the insulting Mayne,
Of sudden-swelling waters a vast Playne,
There, his two heads Pernassus50 doth extend
To touched Stars; whose tops the Clouds transcend.
On this Deucalion's little Boat was throwne:
With him, his wife; the rest all ouerflowne.
Corycian51 Nymphs, and Hill-gods he adores;
And Themis,52 then oraculous, implores.
None was there better, none more iust then Hee:
And none more reuerenc't the Gods then Shee.
Ioue, when he saw that all a Lake was growne,
And of so many thousand men but one;
One, of so many thousand women, left;
Both guiltlesse, pious both; and all bereft:
The clouds (now chac't by Boreas) from him throwes:
And Earth to Heauen, Heauen vnto Earth he shewes.
Nor Seas persist to rage: their awfull guide
The wild waues calmes, his Trident laid aside;
And calls blew Triton,53 riding on the Deep.
(Whose mantle Nature did in purple steep)
And bids him his lowed sounding shell inspire,
And giue the Floods a signall to retire.
He his wreath'd trumpet takes (as giuen in charge)
That from the turning bottome growes more large:
To which when he giues breath, 'tis heard by all,
From farre-uprising Phoebus to his fall.
When this the watery Deity had set
To his large mouth, and sounded a retreat;
All Floods it heard, that Earth or Ocean knew:
And all the Floods, that heard the same, with-drew.
Seas now haue shores: full streames their channels keepe
They sink, and hills aboue the waters peep.
Earth re-ascends: as waues decrease, so growe
The formes of things, and late-hid figures shewe.
And after a long54 day, the trees extend
Their bared tops; with mud their branches bend.
The World's restor'd. Which when in such a state,
So deadly silent, and so desolate,
Deucalion saw: with teares which might haue made
An other Flood, he thus to Pyrrha said.
    O Sister!55 O my wife! the poore remaines
Of all thy Sex; which all, in one, containes!
Whom human Nature, one paternall Line,
Then one chaste Bed, and now like dangers ioyne!
Of what the Sunne beholds from East to West.
We two are all: the Sea intombs the rest.
Nor yet can we of life be confident;
The threatening clowds strange terrors still present.
O what a heart wouldst thou haue had, if Fate
Had ta'ne me from thee, and prolong'd thy date!
So wild a feare, such sorrowes, so forlorne
And comfortlesse, how couldest thou haue borne!
If Seas had suckt thee in, I would haue follow'd
My Wife in death, and Sea should me haue swallow'd.
O would I could my Father's56 cunning vse!
And soules into well-modul'd Clay infuse!
Now, all our mortall Race we two contayne;
And but a patterne of Man-kind remayne.
  This said, both wept: both, pray'rs to Heauen addresse;
And seeke the Oracle57 in their distresse.
Forth-with descending to Cephisus Flood,
Which in known banks now ran, though thick with mud;
They on their heads and garments water throwe;
And to the Temple of the Goddesse goe;
At that time all defil'd with mosse and mire;
The vnfrequented Altar without fire.
Then, humbly on their faces prostrate lay'd,
And kissing the cold stones, with feare thus pray'd.
If Powres diuine to iust desires consent,
And angrie Gods doe in the end relent;
Say, Themis, how shall wee our Race repaire?
O, helpe the drown'd in Water and Despaire!
The Goddesse, with compassion mou'd, reply'd;
Goe from my Temple: both your faces hide;
Let Garments all vnbraced loosely flow;
And your Great-Parents bones behind you throw.
Amaz'd! first Pyrrha silence breakes, and said;
By me the Goddesse must not be obay'd;
And, trembling, pardon craues: Her Mothers ghost58
Shee feares would suffer, if her bones were tost.
Meane-while they ponder and reiterate
The words proceeding from ambiguous Fate,
Then, Promethides,59 Epimethida60
Thus recollecteth; lost in her dismay:
Or I the Oracle misseunderstand,
Or the iust Gods no wicked thing command,
The Earth is our Great-Mother: and the stones,
Therein contain'd, I take to be her bones.
These, sure, are those we should behind vs throw.
Although Titania61 thought it might be so,
Yet shee misse-doubts. Both with weake faith rely
On ayding Heauen. What hurt was it to try?
Departing with heads vail'd, and clothes vnbrac't,
Commanded stones they o're their shoulders cast.
Did not Antiquitie auouch the same,
Who would beleeu't! the stones lesse hard became.
And as their naturall hardnesse them forsooke;
So by degrees they Man's dimensions tooke;
And gentler-natur'd grew, as they increast:
And, yet not manifestly Man exprest;
But, like rough-hewne rude marble Statues stand,
That want the Workmans last life-giuing hand.
The Earthy parts, and what had any iuyce,
Were both converted to the body's vse.
The vnflexible and solid, turne to bones:
The veins remain, that were when they were stones.
Those, throwne by Man, the forme of men indue:
And those were Women, which the Woman threw.
Hence we, a hardy Race, inur'd to payne:
Our Actions our Originall explayne.
  All other Creatures tooke their numerous birth
And figures, from the voluntary Earth.
When that old humor with the Sunne did sweat,
And slimy Marishes grew big with heat;
The pregnant Seeds, as from their Mothers wombe,
From quickning Earth both growth and forme assume.
So, when seuen chanel'd Nile62 forsakes the Playne,
When ancient bounds retyring streames contayne,
And late-left slime aethereall feruours burne,
Men various creatures with the gleabe vp-turne:
Of those, some in their very time of birth;
Some lame; and others halfe aliue, halfe earth.
For, Heat and Moysture, when they temperate grow,
Forth-with conceiue; and life on things bestow.
From striuing Fire and Water all proceede;
Discording Concord euer apt to breede.
So, Earth by that late Deluge muddy growne,
When on her lap reflecting Titan63 shone,
Produc't a World of formes; restor'd the late:
And other vnknowne Monsters did create.
    Huge Python, thee, against her will, shee bred;  PYTHON  
A Serpent, whom the new-borne People dread;
Whose bulk did like a mouing Mountaine showe.
Behold! the God that beares the siluer Bowe64
(Till then, inur'd to strike the flying Deere,
Or swifter Roe, who euery shaddow feare)
That terror with a thousand arrowes slew;
And through black wounds the clotted poison drew.
Then, least the well-deserued memorie
Of such a Praise, in future times should die;
He instituteth celebrated Games65
Of free contention; which he Pythia names.
Who Ran, who Wrastled best; or Rak't the ground
With swiftest Wheeles, the Oken Garland crown'd.
The Laurel was not yet: all sorts of Boughs
Phoebus then bound about his radiant Browes.
    Peneian Daphne66 was his first belou'd,  DAPHNE  
Not Chance, but Cupid's wrath, that fury mou'd.
Whom Delius67 (proud of his late Conquest) saw,
As he his pliant Bowe began to draw;
And said: Lasciuious Boy, how ill agree
Thou and these Armes! too Manly far for thee.
Such suit our shoulders; whose strong arme confounds
Both Man and Beast, with neuer-missing wounds;
That Python, bristled with thick Arrows, queld,
Who o're so many poys'ned Akers sweld.
Be thou content to kindle with thy Flame
Desires we know not; nor our prayses claime.
Then, Venus sonne;68 Selfe-praysed euer bee:
All may thy Bowe transfixe, as mine shall thee.
So farre as Gods exceed all earthly powr's;
So much thy glorie is exceld by ours.
With that, He breaks the Ayre with nimble wings,
And to Parnassus shadie summit Springs;
Two different arrowes from his Quiuer drawes:
One, hate of Loue; the other Loue doth cause.
What caus'd, was sharpe, and had a golden Head:
But what repulst, was blunt, and tipt with Lead.
The God this in Peneia69 fixt: that strucke
Apollo's bones, and in his Marrow stucke.
Forth-with he loues: a Louer's name shee flyes:
And emulating vn-wed Phoebe,70 ioyes
In spoyles of saluage Beasts, and syluan Lares;
A fillet binding her neglected haires.
Her, many sought: but she, auerse to all,
Vnknowne to Man, nor brooking such a thrall
Frequents the pathlesse Woods; and hates to proue,
Nor cares to heare, what Hymen71 is, or Loue.
Oft said her Father; Daughter, thou do'st owe
A Son-in-law, who Nephews may bestowe.
But she, who Marriage as a Crime eschew'd
(Her Face with blushing shamefac'tnes imbew'd)
Hung on his necke with fawning armes, and said,
Deare Father, giue me leaue to liue a Maid:
This boone Diana's sire72 did her afford.
He,73 too indulgent, gaue thee his accord:
But thee, thy excellencie countermands;
And thy owne beautie thy desire with-stands.
Apollo loues, and faine would Daphne wed:
What he desires, he hopes; and is misse-led
By his owne Oracles. As stubbles burne,
As hedges into sudden blazes turne,
Fire set too neere, or left by chance behinde
By passengers, and scattered with the winde:
So springs he into flames: a fire doth moue
Through all his veins: hope feeds his barren loue.
He on her shoulders sees her haire vntrest:
O what, said he, if these were neatly drest!
He sees her Eyes, two Starres! her Lips which kisse
Their happy Selues, and longs to taste their blisse:
Admires her fingers, hands, her armes halfe-bare;
And Parts vnseene conceiues to be more rare.
Swifter then following winds, away shee runs;
And him, for all this his intreatie, shuns.
    Stay Nymph, I pray thee stay; I am no Foe:
So Lambs from Wolues, Harts fly from Lyons so;
So from the Eagle springs the trembling Doue.
They, from their deaths: but my pursuite is Loue.
Wo's me, if thou shouldst fall, or thorns should race
Thy tender legs, whilst I inforce the chace!
These roughs are craggy: moderate thy hast,
And, trust me, I will not pursue so fast.
Yet know, who 'tis you please: No Mountainere,
No home-bred Clowne; nor keepe I Cattle here.
From whom thou fly'st thou know'st not (silly foole!)
And therefore fly'st thou. I in Delphos74 rule;
Ionian Claros,74 Lycian Patara,74
And Sea-girt Tenedos doe me obay.
Ioue is my Father. What shall be, hath beene,
Or is; by my instructiue rayes is seene.
Immortall Verse75 from our invention springs;
And how to strike the well concording-strings.
My shafts hit sure: yet He one surer found,
Who in my emptie bosome made this wound.
Of herbs I found the vertue; and through all
The World they Me the great Physitian call.
Ay me, that herbs can Loue no cure afford!
That Arts, releeuing all, should faile their Lord!
    More had he said, when she, with nimble dread,
From him, and his vnfinisht court-ship fled.
How gracefull then! the Wind that obuious blew,
Too much betray'd her to his amorous view;
And play'd the Wanton with her fluent haire:
Her Beauty, by her flight, appear'd more rare.
No more the God will his intreaties loose;
But, vrg'd by loue, with all his force pursues.
As when a Hare the speedy Gray-hound spyes;
His feet for prey, shee hers for safety plyes;
Now bears he vp; now, now he hopes to fetch her;
And, with his snowt extended, straines to catch her:
Not knowing whether caught or no, shee slips
Out of his wide-stretcht iawes, and touching lips.
The God and Virgin in such strife appeare:
He, quickned by his hope; She, by her feare,
But, the Pursuer doth more nimble proue:
Enabled by th' industrious wings of loue.
Nor giues he time to breathe: now at her heeles,
His breath vpon her dangling haire she feeles.
Cleane spent, and fainting, her affrighted blood
Forsakes her cheeks. Shee cryes vnto the Flood.76
Helpe Father, if your streames containe a Powre!
May Earth, for too well pleasing; me deuour:
Or, by transforming, O destroy this shape,
That thus betrayes me to vndoing rape.
Forth-with, a numnesse all her lims possest;
And slender filmes her softer sides inuest.
Haire into leaues, her Armes to branches grow:
And late swift feet, now rootes, are lesse then slow.
Her gracefull head a leauy top sustaynes:
One beauty throughout all her forme remaines.
Still Phoebus loues. He handles the new Plant;
And feeles her Heart within the barks to pant.
Imbrac't the bole, as he would her haue done;
And kist the boughs: the boughs his kisses shun.
To whom the God: Although thou canst not bee
The wife I wisht, yet shalt thou be my Tree,
Our Quiuer, Harp, our Tresses neuer shorne,
My Laurell,77 thou shalt euer more adorne;
And Browes triumphant,78 when they79 sing,
And to the Capitol80 their Trophees bring.
Thou shalt defend from Thunders blasting stroke,
Augustus doores,81 on either side the Oke.
And, as our vn-cut haire no change receaues;
So euer flourish with vnfading leaues.
Here Paean82 ends. The Laurell all allowes:
In signe whereof her gratefull head shee bowes.
    A pleasant Groue within Aemonia83 growes,  IO  
Call'd Tempe; which high ragged Cliffs inclose.
Through this, Peneus, pour'd from Pindus, raues,
And from the bottom rowles with foming waues;
That by steep down-falls tumbling from on hie,
Ingender mists, which smoke-like, vpward flie,
That on the deawy tops of Trees distill,
And more then neighbouring woods with noyses fill.
Here, in a Caue, his Court and residence
The great flood84 keepes: here iustice doth dispence
To streames, and gentle Nymphs that streams frequent.
The Floods, that natiue were, with one consent
First thither came; as yet, at selfe-debate,
Whether to comfort, or congratulate.
Coole Sperchius,85 slowe Amphrysus,85 Apidan.85
* Swift Aeas,85 Enipe,85that troubled ran.
Then, forth-with those, who (as their sources bend)
To Seas their Waues (with wandring, weary) send.
All but old Inachus:86 who in his Caues
Obscure recesse, with tears augments his waues:
For , mournes as lost; nor yet knowes hee
Whether aboue or vnder Earth she bee:
But, her, whom he not any-where could find,
He thinkes is no where: feare distracts his mind.
As from her Fathers streams the Nymph return'd,
Saturnius,87 seeing her in passion burn'd.
O Virgin, worthy Ioue! whose bed must blesse
What God I know not; though a Man, no lesse:
Here in these Woods, said hee, or these repose,
Whil'st thus the World with fainting feruor glowes.
Nor feare among the Saluages to venter:
A God protecting, thou maist safely enter.
Nor one of vulgar ranke; but, He that beares
Heauens Scepter, and the clouds with thunder teares,
O, flie not! for she fled. The Pastures past
Of Lerna,88 and Lyrcaeu's89 gloomy wast,
He in the Aire a sable cloud displai'd,
Caught, and deuirginat's the strugling Maid.
Mean-while, with wonder Iuno doth suruay
Those duskie Clouds, that made a night of Day.
And, finding that they neither tooke their birth
From vap'rous streams, nor from the humid Earth,
For her mist Husband searcheth Heauen: as one,
To whom his stealths so often had beene knowne.
Whom when shee could not find; Deceiu'd am I,
Or wrong'd, she said. Downe from the enamel'd skie
Shee slides to Earth. The foggy Clouds with-draw
At her command. Her comming Ioue fore-saw,
And changed Inachis90 into a Cow;
Whose forme euen Iuno prais'd; demanding how
Shee thither came? Whose was she? Of what herd?
As ignorant of what she more then fear'd.
Ioue faynes (her importunity to shift)
Her borne of Earth. Saturnia91 begs the gift.
What should he doe? Be cruell to his Loue;
Or by denying her, suspicion moue?
Shame that perswades; and Loue doth this disswade:
But, stronger Loue Shame vnder foote had layd;
Yet doubts, if he should such a thing deny
His Wife and Sister, 'twould the fraud descry.
Obtayn'd; not forth-with feare the Goddesse left;
Distrusting Ioue, and iealous of his theft,
Vntill deliuered to Argus guard.
A hundred eyes his head's large circuit starr'd;
Whereof, by turnes, at once two only slept;
The other watcht, and still their Stations kept.
Which way so-ere he stands, he spyes:
, behind him, was before his eyes.
By day, she graz'd abroad: Sol92 vnder ground,
He hous'd her, in vnworthy halter bound.
On leaues of trees and bitter hearbes she fed.
Poore soule! the Earth not alwaies greene, her bed;
And of the Torrent drinkes. With hands vp-heau'd
Shee thought to beg for pitty: how deceiu'd!
Who low'd, when shee began to make her mone;
And trembled at the voyce which was her owne.
Vnto the bankes of Inachus she stray'd;
Her Fathers banks, where shee so oft had playd:
Beholding in his streame her horned head,
Shee starts; and from her selfe, selfe-frighted, fled.
Her Sisters, nor old Inachus, her knew
Which way so-ere they went, shee would pursue,
And suffer them to stroke her; and doth moue
Their wonder with her strange expressed loue.
He brought her Grasse: She gently lickt his hands,
And kist his palmes; nor, longer, teares withstands.
And had shee then had words, shee had display'd
Her Name, her Fortunes, and implor'd his ayde.
For words, shee letters93 with her foot imprest
Vpon the Sand, which her sad change profest.
Wo's me! cry'd Inachus; his armes he throwes
About her snowy Necke. O, woe of woes!
Art thou my daughter throughout all the Round
Of Earth so sought; that now, not found,94 art found!
Lesse was thy losse: lesse was my miserie.
Dumbe wretch (alas!) thou canst not make reply:
Yet: as thou canst thou dost: thy lowings speake,
And deep-fetcht sighs that from thy bosom breake.
I, ignorant, prepar'd thy marriage bed:
My hopes, a Sonne-in-law, and Nephewes fed.
Now, from the Heard, thy issue must descend:
Nor can the length of time my sorrowes end;
Accurst in that a God. Death's sweet reliefe
Hard fates denie to my immortall griefe.
    This said: his Daughter (in that shape belou'd)
The Star-ey'd Argus farre from thence remou'd;
When, mounted on a hill, the warie Spie
Suruayes the Plaines that round about him lie.
    The King of Gods those sorrowes she indur'd,
Could brooke no longer, by his fault procur'd:
But, calls his sonne,95 of fulgent Pleias bred;
Commanding him to cut off Argus head.
He wings his heeles,96 puts on his Felt,96 and takes
His drowsie Rod; the Towre of Ioue forsakes;
And, winding, stoops to Earth. The changed God
His Hat and Wings layes by; retaynes his Rod:
With which he driues his Gotes (like one that feeds
The bearded Heard) and sings t'his slender Reeds.
    Much taken with that Art, before vnknowne,
Come, sit by me, said Argus, on this stone.
No place affordeth better Pastorage,
Or shelter for the Sunnes offensiue rage.
Pleas'd Atlantiades97 doth him obey;
And with discourse protracts the speedy Day:
Then, singing to his Pipe's soft melody,
Endeauours to subdue each wakefull eye.
The Herds-man striues to conquer vrgent sleepe:
Though seiz'd on halfe, the other halfe doe keepe
Obseruant watch. He askes who did invent
(With that, he yawn'd) that late-found Instrument.
    Then, thus the God his charmed eares inclines:  SYRINX  
Amongst the Hamadryad'e Nonacrines98
(On cold Arcadian Hils) for beautie fam'd,
A Naias99 dwelt; the Nymphs, her Syrinx nam'd.
Who oft deceiu'd the Satyres that pursu'd,
The rurall Gods, and those whom Woods include:
In exercises and in chaste desire,
Diana-like: and such in her attire.
You either in each other might behold:
Saue that Her Bowe was Horne; Diana's Gold:
Yet oft mistooke. Pan,100 crown'd with Pines, returning
From steepe Lycaeus,101 saw her; and, loue-burning,
Thus said: Faire Virgin, grant a Gods request;
And be his Wife. Surceast to tell the rest;
How from his prayers shee fled, as from her shame,
Till to smooth Ladon's102 sandy banks shee came.
There stopt; implores the liquid Sisters103 aid,
To change her shape, and pitty a forc't Maid.
Pan, when he thought he had his Syrinx claspt
Betweene his arms, Reeds for her body graspt.
He sighs: they, stir'd therewith, report againe
A mournefull sound, like one that did complaine.
Rapt with the musick; Yet, O sweet (said he)
Together euer thus converse will we.
Then, of vnequall wax-ioyn'd Reeds he fram'd
This seuen-fold Pipe: of her 'twas Syrinx nam'd.
    Thus much about to haue said, Cyllenius104 spyes
How leaden sleep had seal'd vp all his eyes.
Then, silent, with his Magick rod105 he strokes
Their languisht lights, which sounder sleep prouokes,
And with his Fawchion lops his nodding head:
Whose blood besmear'd the hoarie Rock with red.
There lyes he; of so many lights, the light
Put forth: his hundred eyes set in one night.
Yet, that those starry iewels might remayne,
Saturnia106 fixt them in her Peacocks trayne.
    Inflam'd with anger, and impatient haste,
Before sad Iös eyes and thoughts she plac't
Erinnys107 Snakes; and through the World doth driue
The conscience-stung affrighted Fugitiue.
Thou, Nile, to her long toyle an end didst yeeld.
Approaching thee, shee on thy margent kneel'd;
Her looks (such as she had) to heauen vp-throwes
With tears, sighs, sounds (expressing wordless woes)
Shee seemed Ioue t'accuse, as too ingrate,
And to implore an end of her hard fate.
He clips his Wife; and her intreats to free
Th' vniustly plagu'd. Be confident (said he)
Shee neuer more shall cause thy griefe, or feare:
His vow108 he bids the Stygian Waters heare.
Appeas'd; the Nymph recouer'd her first looke;
So faire, so sweet! the haire her skin forsooke:
Her horns decrease: large eyes, wide iawes, contract:
Shoulders and hands againe become exact:
Her hooues to nailes diminish: nothing now,
But that pure White, retaines shee of the Cow.
Then, on her feet her body shee erects
Now borne by two. Her selfe shee yet suspects;
Nor dares to speake alowd, lest shee should heare
Her selfe to low; but softly tries with feare.
Now, shee, a Goddesse,109 is ador'd by those
That shine in linnen stoles110 where Nilus flowes.
    Hence sprung Ioue's Epaphus, no lesse diuine;
Whose Temples next vnto his Mother's ioyne.
Equall in yeares, nor equall spirit wants
The Sunne-got Phaëton: who proudly vants
Of his high Parentage; nor will giue place.
Inachides111 puts on him this disgrace:
Foole, thou thy Mother trusts in things vnknowne;
And of a Father boasts that's not thy owne.
Vext Phaëton blusht: his shame his rage repels:
Who straight to Clymene the slander tels:
And Mother, said he, to your griefes increase;
I, free, and late so lofty, held my peace;
Asham'd that such a tainture should be lai'd
Vpon my blood, that could not be gain-said.
But, if I be descended from aboue;
Giue proofe thereof, and this reproach remoue.
Then hangs about her neck: by her owne Head,112
By Merops,113 by his Sisters114 nuptiall bed,
Intreats her to produce some certaine gage,
That might assure his question'd parentage.
Mou'd with her sonnes intreaty, more inflam'd
With indignation to be so defam'd,
Shee casts her armes to heauen: and looking on
His radiant Orbe, thus said: I sweare, my son,
By yon' faire Taper, that so bright appeares
With far-proiected beames; who sees, and heares:
That Sun whom thou behold'st, who light and heat
Affords the informed World, did thee beget.
If not, may he to me deny his sight:
And to my eyes let this be his last light.
Nor far-remoued doth his Palace stand;
His first-vprise confines vpon our Land:115
If that thy heart doe serue thee, thither goe;
And there thy Father, of thy Father, knowe.
Hereat, ioy'd Phaëton enlightened grew;
Whose towring thoughts no lesse then Heauen pursew.
His Aethiopia past, and Ind which fries
With burning beames, he climes the Sun's vprise.

On to Book II