Omnia Vincit Amor Ovid Illustrated: The Renaissance Reception
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George Sandys, Ovid's Metamorphosis (1632)

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Although I conceaued at the first, that it would seeme a vaine ostentation in mee (who am only a louer of learning) to stuffe the Margent with Quotations: yet vpon second thoughts, least it should be obiected how I make that my owne which I doe but borrow, and proue, vngratefull to the lenders; I hold it not amisse in this empty Page, (so left by the oversight of the Printer) to mention those principall Authors out of whom I haue compiled these commentaries. The first place is due to diverse of the Greeke, and most of the latine Poets, together with their Expositers. I am much indebted to Plato, the poeticall Philosopher: not a little to Palaphates, Apollidorus, Aratus, Strabo, Diodorus, Pausanias, Plutarch, and Lucian: among the Romans chiefly, to Cicero, Higinus, Pliny, and Macrobius. Neither haue I beene sparingly supplied by those antient Fathers, Lactantius, Eusebius, St. Augustine, and Fulgentius. Of moderne writers, I haue receiued the greatest light from Geraldus, Pontanus, Ficinus, Viues, Comes, Scaliger, Sabinus, Pierius, and the Crowne of the latter, the Vicount of St. Albons: assisted, though lesse constantly, by other authors, almost of all Ages and Arguments. Hauing beene true to my first purpose, in making choice for the most part of those interpretations, which either beare the stampe of Antiquity, or receiue estimation from the Honour of the Author.


His Argument first propounded, our Poet according to the custome of the Heroicall, inuokes the diuine assistance (Rather would we begin, saith Livy, if it were our manner, as it is of the Poets, with our vows & prayers to the Gods, that they might giue successe to so great a labour). Then hee proceeds to the description of that confused Masse, which the Platonists call the vndigested World, as the world the digested Chaos: ordered, as they say by Loue; who raised the heauy, illuminated the obscure, quickned the dead, gaue forme to the deformed,  CHAOS  and perfection to the imperfect: which was no other then that harmony in Nature created by the Almighties Fiat. And although by not expressing the originall he seemes to intimate the eternitie of his Chaos: yet appeares in the rest so consonant to the truth, as doubtlesse he had either seene the Books of Moses, or receaued that doctrine by tradition. He confesseth God, not disguizing his name (as obserued by Lactantius) to be the Creator of the World & maker of all things: and by that word Commanded, so often reiterated, that hee made them by his Word only. Whom he also calleth the Better Nature; so named by the Stoicke: Wilt thou call him Nature? Thou offendest not: it is he by whose spirit wee liue, of whom all things were borne. The better concludes a worse, which was Chaos: God they held to be the Minde, and Chaos the Matter: the Minde called by Plato the worlds Architectresse.
    Chaos is first digested into the foure Elements. The Fire   THE 4 ELEMENTS  exceeding the rest in drinesse, heat, and leuitie, ascendeth next vnto the Orbe of the Moone; in forme sphericall, and turn'd about with the motion of the Heauens; pure in his owne Spheare, not deuouring, bright, giuing light; yet such as  Fire   cannot be seene by reason of his tenuity: dissipated, rarified, & consequently preserued by his circular motion. The next in leuitie and place is Aire: moist, moderate hot; filling whatsoeuer  Ayre  is not otherwise supplied, as defending Nature from abhorred vacuitie; which rather then suffer, heauy bodies will ascend, and the light fall down-ward: moderate hot, in regard of the vicinitie of the fire; moist, in that thin, fluent, and boundlesse; the food of our spirits, without which the creature cannot subsist. Below the Ayre the Earth, dry, cold, thick,  Earth  solid and heauy: dry, in that setled, and deuouring all moisture; cold, in that without motion, and farre remoued from the fountaine of heat: weight proceeds from density and soliditie, and therefore 'tis fixed in the midst of the world, as it were his Center. Last, he mentions the water; as lowest in his superficies approued by the perpetuall descent of Riuers; the shore  Water  being lower then the In-land, as the Sea then the shore. And although it seeme otherwise, yet is that but a deception of the eye, casting higher beames on places farre distant: so in a long Gallery the floore and seeling appeare to incline to each other. Yet is the water lesse heauy, moist, and respectiuely cold; naturally pressing to the same Center with the Earth, imbracing, and running within it, as blood in the veines, which else would be barren: moisture being the mother of all generation. The forme thereof is sphericall, or equally distant from the Center; making one Globe with the Earth, as is apparent at Sea by raising or laying the North-starre. And by loosing the shore by degrees, the lower objects first, and after the higher. So the mast is discouered before the Hull of a ship; which if the Sea were leuell (as Patritius will haue it) would first appeare, as exceeding it so infinitely in magnitude. Neither is his argument weighty which he drawes from water-leuels, since that gibbosity cannot be discerned, nor taken by instruments, in so small a proportion; rising but six foot in three miles, the space of a visible Horizon. Thus before he calleth Amphitrite, the feined daughter of Oceanus and Doris, and wife vnto Neptune: in that he, as they held, was the spirit diffused through the vniuersall masse of water; and, as we may say, the soule of that Element: Amphitrite, that body and matter of all moysture which imbraceth the Earth, or is embraced by it. The name deriued from the beating vpon the incompassed Earth with her surges.
    From the Elements he proceeds to the Ornament of the  THE EARTH ADORNED  Earth: made round, that it might be equall in it selfe; and equally distant from the celestiall bodies, from whence it receaueth her virtue. That it is so, is apparent by the Eclypse of the Moone, for such as the substance such is the shadow: effected by the naturall pressing of all parts to the Center; if not of the World, yet of her owne body. For the former is denied by Copernicus and his followers, who would rather place the Sunne in the Center: & alleadging the Moone to be a heauy body, with risings and depressions, like our vallies and mountaines as since discouered by Galileos Glasses. And perhaps to a Menippus in the Moone, the Earth, according to Aristotle, would appeare such another Planet. Our Poet before described the earth to hang in the Ayre, ballanced with her owne weight: and Lucretius of the same vnder the name of Cybel:
The sage Greek Poets sung, that she was by
Yok't Lyons in her Chariot drawne on high:
By which they taught that this huge masse of mold
Hung in the Ayre; nor earth could earth vphold.
Yet would the Ayre giue it way, were it not at rest in her proper Center. Some haue marueiled that it fell not: but that fall would haue proued an ascension; for, which way soeuer, it must haue fallen into heauen; which our Hemisphere would haue done as soone as the other. Yet Lactantius and S. Augustine with acerbitie deride the opinion of the Antipodes, as if men could goe with their heads downward, and the raine vpward; but heauen is euery where aboue vs, and vpward and downe-ward are only words of relation in sphericall bodies, the superficies on euery side, being the extreme, and the middle the Center. Yet Virgilius Bishop of Salsburg, was depriued of his Bishopricke for maintaining this opinion: now discouered by daily nauigations, as long since by reason. The Sea-imbraced  Riuers   Earth is also inchased with Riuers which glide from their fountaines: These are ingendred in the hollow cauernes below, by condensed ayre which resolues into water, and increasing by degrees breake from vnder the ground; maintaining their currents by a perpetuall accession. Some falling into bottomes, enuironed with hills, become lakes; some are drunk vp by the earth, as Ladon, Lycus, Erasinus, &c. almost all by the Sea; which shee through secret passages, sweetned, as some say, by a long progresse, repaies to new fountaines: through which they haue their recourse by a perpetuall vicissitude; rising as high as they fall, and rather recoile then transcend their originall. Woods, Plaines, Mountaines and Vallies (not made, as some  Mountaines  haue dreamed, by the Flood) were created for beautie, vse, and varietie. Nether makes it against the rotunditie of the Earth that some one Mountaine aspires (as they report of Teneriff ) fourescore furlongs aboue his basis; being farre lesse then a wart on the face of man compared with the immensitie of the other, containing three thousand and six hundred miles in Semidiameter. But the best Geographers will admit of none aboue fiue miles high, which at Sea may be made threescore & six leagues off, being farther perhaps then any haue beene discerned.
    The fiue Zones, or diuisions of Heauen and Earth, not reall  THE FIVE ZONES  but imaginary, were well deuised by Astronomers to distinguish the motions of the Sunne, the Moone and the Starres, the vicissitude of times, the site and qualitie of Countries. The Torrid, so called of excessiue heat, the Sun being euer ouer it,  The Torrid Zone  is confined by the Tropicks of Cancer and Capricorne, and parted in the midst by the Aequator; containing in latitude seauen and forty degrees. This in the daies of our Author was held generally vnhabitable. Yet Lucan, in the army of Pompey, musters the Aethiopians: and Pliny out of Eratosthenes describes Taprobana, vnder the line, (supposed the same with Zumatra) but elsewhere concurres with the former assertion: so Ptolomie makes a doubt thereof in his Almagest, yet in his Geography treats of the Agisymban Aethiopians on the South of the Equinoctiall. Thus hardly is an old opinion worne out though the arguments against it bee neuer so forcible: found now by the Portugals and Spaniards not only populous, but healthfull, pleasant, and abounding with whatsoeuer the auarice or voluptuousnesse of man can desire. To them vnder the line the daies and nights are alwaies equall; the heat of the one being qualified by the length of the other, and coole breises continually blowing from nine of the clock vntill the euening. All the Starres (euen to the Poles) by turnes arise and set in their sight: though questioned by Lerius Burgundus and others. For in a free Horizon, as at Sea, we may see one halfe of the Heauens, or so insensibly lesse as cannot depriue the sight of a starre, the least farre exceeding the Earth in greatnesse, besides the refraction raises them halfe a degree. All within the Torrid Zone a part of the yeare haue their shadowes on their right side, and a part on the left, as the Sun is either towards the Winter or Summer Solstice. Two Summers they haue, and two haruests: the Trees euer greene, and bearing fruit continually. On each side of this lye the temperate Zones, confined by the  The Temperate Zones  Artick and Antartick Circles; each containing forty three degrees; and of equall qualitie. As the Sunne at high noone is with vs in the South, so is it North vnto those who dwell in the other; casting consequently contrary shadowes, to the no smal admiration of either who trauell hether or thether.
The Arab in an vnknowne world now sees;
And wonders at the right hand shades of trees.
The Hebrewes turning their faces to the East called the North the left, and the South the right hand, contrary to these souldiers of Arabia the Happy who marched Westward. Their Winter beyond the Line being our Summer, and our Summer their Winter. The Frigid Zones, held inhabitable for extremity  The Frigid Zones  of cold, by reason of the Sunnes distance from their verticall point, extend from the former circles to the North and South Pole; each three and twenty Degrees and a halfe in Latitude: yet this to the North is found within ten degrees of the Pole to be habitable. To them whose Zeniths are the Poles the Equator is their Horizon. The starres in their Hemispheares are euer in sight, and those neere the Line apparent to either. Halfe the yeare both haue, but contrary to each other, one continued Day: and after for a certaine season, they see by refraction the body of the Sun, though vnder their Horizon, through the thicknesse of Vapours; confirmed by the Hollanders, who haue wintred neere vnto that of the North. So if you put a peece of gold into a bason of water, and stand so farre off as not to see the bottome; yet will it shew you the gold at that distance. The rest of the yeare is a perpetuall twi-light, since the sunne is neuer below their Horizon aboue three and twenty Degrees; nor higher in the summer; so that like Tantalus they starue for cold in his perpetuall presence; who wheeles their shadowes continually about them, and hardly warmes them with his beames in regard of their obliquitie. By this diuision the extent of the Heauens betweene the two Poles containes one hundred and fourescore Degrees, which doubled for the Hemispheare amount to three hundred and sixty, the measure of the whole circuit. A Degree in Heauen is threescore miles on the Earth; so the Globe of the Earth is twenty one thousand and six hundred miles in circumference.
From Earth he ascends to Aire: how much thinner then Water the Optickes discouer; the one causing a refraction but  THE DESCRIPTION OF THE AIRE  of halfe a Degree, and the other of forty eight Degrees. Yet how much grosser then the sky, is by twilight apparent: the whole skie being all the night long in the beames of the Sun (that little spire, the shadowe of the Earth excepted) yet pitchy darke notwithstanding by reason of the transparent tenuity, which giues no reflection. But Morning and Euening when the sun shines on the Aire from vnder the Horizon, by the light thereof the starres are obscured: so that blew which we see in a cleere heauen is only the reflection of the Aire, thickned by the warme and moist vapours, drawne vp by the sun, and vertue of the starres, which otherwise would be too subtill to breath in. Acosta writes, that vpon the Andes high mountaines of Peru, men and horses expire in that too subtle and piercing; and Aristotle how those who ascended the top of Olympus (farre lower then the other) accustomed to carry wet spunges, to preuent the like mischiefe. These moist and grosse vapors,  Clouds  attracted as before, and condensed by cold convert into clouds, which hang as if congealed together; and dissoluing by the feruor of the sun descend in fruitfull showres on the superficies  Raine  of the Earth, not penetrating aboue the depth of ten feet, as  Lightning and Thunder  and obserued by Seneca, a diligent digger in Vinyards. Here hot dry exhalations, inveloped by watry Clouds, with motion or opposition of contrary cold, are inflamed: burning they rarifie; then struggle to burst forth, and at length force their way, darting downe flames with horrible roarings. Although naturall, yet well tearmed a terror to man; nay euen to such who haue slighted the Gods and contemned their power. Insomuch as Tiberius Caesar when the aire grew troubled, was no lesse distempred in his minde, and would put on a Garland of Laurell, as a preseruatiue against it. And Caligula, who vsurped the title of Iupiter, and often bare a thunder-bolt in his hand, would shut his eyes, couer his face, and not seldome creep vnder bedsteads and tables. But Dion writes that when it thundred and lightned aloft, he below would counterfeit the same by artificiall deuices: following belike the example of Salmoneus, seene in Hell by Aeneas,
Suffering dire punishment, who durst of late
Ioues lightning, and heauens thunder imitate,
He, darting flames, through Greece and Elis rod,
Drawne by foure Steeds, in triumph like a God.
Mad man, the cloudes, and lightnings matelesse force
To forge with brasse, and speed of horne-hooft horse.
    Next treats he of the windes, proceeding from abundance of  Windes  hot and dry exhalations, which attracted by the sun, and influence of particular starres, are violently struck downe by the cold and thick clouds of the third Region. But their naturall motion, which is to ascend, encountring with the violent, and neither preuailing, thrust them obliquely forward: when by meeting of like exhalations by the way their fury increaseth. Of these he mentioneth the foure cardinall only: calling them brothers, in that fained to be the sonnes of Aurora and the Gyant Astraeus. For by the Gyants the Naturalists vnderstand the included spirits of the Earth, of which the windes are ingendred; as the birth of Aurora in that they commonly rise in the morning; the aire being agitated by the approching sun, the author of all motion. Their collaterall windes added, all amount on the Sea-mans Compasse to two and thirty. Their end is to agitate and purge the Aire, which otherwise would corrupt with too-much rest, and destroy the creature, to gather the cloudes, to disperse them, to procure raine and faire weather, for the production and cherishing of vegetables.
    Now comes he to the Heauens; consisting of a pure and vnmixed substance, held heretofore neither subiect to corruption  THE HEAVENS AND THEIR CONTENTS  nor alteration. But late obseruations haue proued the contrary: for Comets are now knowne to be aboue the Moone; nay higher then the least Parallax can be discerned; generated, as Tycho conceaues, of the Milky way; but according to Kepler, of a certaine thick matter, encompassing almost alwaies the body of the sun. Howsoeuer their dissipation must of necessity contaminate the virgin purity of Aristotles Quintessence. The Heauens being neither heauy nor light receaue a sphericall figure, of all other the most perfect, capacious, and fittest for motion. Ten Spheares there are including each other.  The Spheares  The tenth moueth (or is moued by the finger of God) from East vnto West, and finisheth its course in foure and twenty houres; making day, and night, and time, which is the measure of motion. The other nine, on another Axeltree twenty three Degrees from the first, moue from West vnto East. The ninth, which is the Christalline, turneth the eighth (wherein are the fixed Starres) about with it; both of a vniforme motion, and finish their course in twenty and fiue thousand yeares: which motion appeares not but by the obseruation of sundry Ages. In the daies of Meton, foure-hundred and thirty yeares before Christ, the first starre of Aries was in the vernal intersection, which still keepes that name, although now remoued almost nine and twenty degrees. So that in more then two thousand yeares, the fixed starres haue not trauelled from West to East, so much as one whole Signe in the Zodiack. The other seauen  The Planets  being Planets, haue variety of motions: Saturne finisheth his course in thirty yeares, Iupiter in twelue, Mars in two, the Sunne & Venus in one, Mercury in eight and twenty daies lesse, and the Moone in eight and twenty daies. Yet all are violently turned about by the rapture of the tenth Spheare in foure and twenty houres; measuring with incomprehensible celerity at least two hundred thousand miles euery minute: which need not seeme incredible, if we consider the diffusion of light and motion of spirits, which either are or haue many things analogicall to bodies (not to speake of the passage of the glorified) performed in an instant: extolling rather (as doth this whole contemplation of Nature) the omnipotency of the Creator.
    The Earth being replenished with Beasts, the water with  The Starres  Fishes, & the aire with Foule; least the Heauens should only remaine empty, our Poet faines that the starres and Gods made that their habitation. By the Gods perhaps he intimates the Planets that carry their names: and the Ancient held that the starres had life, and dominion withall, ouer our sublunary bodies. Nor haue some Christians rejected this old opinion of the Philosophers, how certaine Angels, or Intelligences, assist and giue motion to the caelestiall Spheares. Insteed of which, the new refiners of Astronomy vouchsafe a kind of soule to the Sunne, as requisite to those his notable effects of motion, generation, and influence. Plato affirmes that at the first they adored no other: calling particular starres by the names of their dead friends, and honouring them with Temples. If my mouth (saith Iob) haue kissed my hand to the Sunne or the Moone (so anciently hath the kissing of the hand beene a token of reuerence) I should haue denied God: and the Prophet complaines that the Iew not onely worshipped these, but the whole Hoast of Heauen, so taught by their idolatrous neighbours, who not only held that they had life and vnderstanding, but saw whatsoeuer was done by mortals; hearing their praises and prayers, and accepting of their sacrifices. That the twelue signes in the Zodiack were directed by twelue superintendents: Aries by Pallas, Taurus by Venus, Gemini by Apollo, Cancer by Mercury, Scorpio by Mars, Sagitarius by Diana, Capricornus by Vesta, Aquarius by Iuno, and Pisces by Neptune. Those ruling in the seuerall parts of the body, and these in the soule. And surely the starres are not only ornaments; although exactly to discouer their virtue in their aspects require a supernaturall knowledge: yet no otherwise incline or dispose the minde, then by working on our seuerall constitutions and complexions, nay many things concurre of farre greater efficacy, as parentage, education, discipline and custome. They consist of the more condensed part of the heauens: receiuing all their light from the sunne; especially the Planets, casting shadowes in their opposition: and Venus by the new perspectiues, found horned like the Moone. Yet vnto the fixed starres, besides their borrowed light, some attribute an innate splendor: supposing that the sunne at so great a distance, appearing ten thousand times lesse vnto them then to vs, cannot communicate so great a light as they retribute to the earth. Yet still inioy he his title of the generall fountaine of light, since his beames searching through the smallest cranny cast a greater lustre then all the starres together in the Firmament. All that are seene in our Hemispheare, digested into Constellations, besides the seauen
Planets, amount not to aboue one thousand and two and twenty: and in the other one hundred and one and twenty more haue lately beene discouered: so in all there are eleuen hundred forty and three: howeuer the glimmering and twinckling of so many make them seeme innumerable. And really so they are, though not by vs to be discerned, as appeares by Galilaeos Glasses.
    Thus sprung this beautifull world out of that deformed Chaos; and to Chaos (or rather into nothing) shall it againe returne, if this opinion erre not:
The aged world, dissolued by the last
And fatall houre, shall to old Chaos hast.
Starres, justling starres, shall in the Deep confound
Their radiant fires: the land shall giue no bound

To swallowing Seas: the Moone shall crosse the Sunne
With scorne that her swift wheeles obliquely Sunne;
Daies throne aspiring. Discord then shall rend

The Worlds crackt frame, and Natures concord end.4
    But many of our Diuines doe beleeue that the world shall rather be renewed then annihilated, which opinion is strengthned by the eight of the Romans, as by other places of the Scriptures.
    The last in act, but the first in intention, was the creation of  MAN CREATED  Man, for whom the rest were created: extolled by our Poet as a sacred creature, and therefore not to be violated; indued with a Minde, which is, with Reason and vnderstanding; the Lord of the rest of the creatures, so deputed by his Creator, sprung of caelestiall seed, in regard of the essence of his soule, made of the earth, to teach him humilitie, yet after the image of God: not only in regard of his originall integritie (a good man, saith Plato, is like vnto God) for that had beene lost by his fall, nor in the inuisibility, eternity, and wonderfull faculties of the soule; nor in his domination: but also (according to the opinion of the Iewes as appeares by Iosephus: as of Zanchius, and many of our moderne Diuines) in the symetry and beauty of his body: Beauty is a quick and sprightly grace (as the Platonists hold) infused at first by a heauenly Ray; shining in the Minde of man, the concinnitie of the body, and harmony of the voice: which by Reason, by the Eye, and the Eare, stirre-vp, and delight, delighting rauish, and rauishing inflame vs with ardent affection: by contemplating and affecting of this, wee contemplate and affect the diuine refulgency, as in that the Deitie. But if this seeme incongruous in respect of our corruptible bodies, yet holds it well as they shall bee glorified, and clad with a Sun-like brightnesse. Lastly man was made with an erected looke to admire the glory of the Creator. What Theologian could haue spoken more diuinely? Alone deceaued in the name of the Artificer. Error is as full of contradiction as truth of conformity. A man to make the first man, and he Prometheus the son of Iaphet. Lactantius writes that he liued in the daies of Iupiter, when Temples and Idols began to be erected, and was the first that euer made Statues. S. Augustine reports him for a man of great wisdome, who informed the rude and earthly minds of men with knowledge and vnderstanding, and therefore was fained to haue made them of clay: others, in that hee taught the doctrine of the Creation. He is said to haue fetcht fire from the Chariot of the Sun by the counsell of Minerva; because he first erected the mindes of men to celestiall speculations. But to conforme the fable to the truth: Prometheus signifies Prouidence, and Minerva Heavenly Wisdome: by Gods prouidence therefore and wisdome Man was created. The celestiall fire is his Soule inspired from aboue: which the Philosophers themselues by the light of nature could discouer. But nothing is here spoken of the creation of Woman. Aristophanes tells a fable in Plato how Man at the first was made double, after cut into two, and distinguished by their sexes, an obscure notion of Eues being taken out of the side of Adam.
    The fiction of the foure Ages degenerating from better to  THE FOVRE AGES  worse, I should haue thought, with others, to haue beene deriued from that Image in Daniel; where the first Monarchie is presented by Gold, the second by Siluer, the third by Brasse, and the fourth by Iron: had not Hesiod long before (from whom our Poet takes his invention) by those names described them:  The Golden Age  
The Golden Race of many languag'd men
The Gods first made, who heauen inhabit, when
The Scepter Saturne swaid: like Gods they liu'd,
Secure in minde; nor sweat with toile, nor greiu'd:
Age was no cumber; armes like vigor keepe,
Feet equall speed: Death was as soft as sleepe.
Then was there neither Master nor Seruant: names meerly brought in by ambition and injury. Vnforced Nature gaue sufficient to all; who securely possest her vndiuided bounty. A rich condition wherein no man was poore: Auarice after introducing indigency: who by coueting a propriety, alienated all; and lost what it had, by seeking to inlarge it. But this happy estate abounding with all felicities, assuredly represented that which man injoyed in his innocency: vnder the raigne of Saturne, more truly of Adam, whereof the Sabaticall yeare among the Iewes was a memoriall: wherein they neither sowed their fields nor had a propriety in the fruits of the Earth, which she voluntarily afforded. Saturne is fained to be the sonne of Coelus, or Heauen, and Cybel, which is the Earth so Adam had God to his Father and the Earth, whereof he was made, to his Mother. Saturne was the first that invented tillage, the first that euer raigned; and so was Adam: Saturne was throwne out of Heauen, and Adam out of Paradice: Saturne is said to deuoure his owne children, and Adam over-threw his whole posterity, (perhaps the occasion of their sacrifizing their children to Saturne or Moloch; for both were the same, as is apparent by their Idols and Ceremonies) Saturne hid himselfe from Ioue, and Adam from the presence of Iehouah. Saturne being an Hebrew word which signifies to lie hid. But the actions of the first are referred to the latter Saturne (the Poets vsually attributing the deeds of many vnto one, and drawing them to their owne country-men) who was deposed by Iupiter his sonne, and driuen out of Creete into Italy: said to be throwne into Hell, in that the West part of the world was called the Inferior, or Infernall, and vnder the Dominion of Pluto. But Astronomically, in that Saturne is the highest of the Planets; Tartarus signifying as well the heigth of Heauen, as the depth of Hell: nor can his motion be discerned; so slow, as seeming to stand still; and therefore faigned to be bound in fetters.
    As the Westerne parts of the world were called the Inferior;  The Siluer Age  so were the Easterne Heauen, or the Superior, being vnder the command of Iupiter.
He poyson first to speckled Serpents gaue:
Taught Wolues to prey, and made the Ocean raue.6
And what was this but his conniuency at wicked and licentious people, of whom he was glad to make vse in the expulsion of his Father? Rebellion being alwaies accompanied by liberty and out-rage: when nothing can better resemble those golden times, then a free Common-wealth, ordred and maintained by well instituted lawes. But the siluer Age is to be referred to the first Iupiter; which perhaps was Cain: A tiller of the Earth, the first that euer sacrifized, a shedder of blood, a builder of Cities, the second that euer raigned, the husband of his sister, whose sonnes were the authors of various inventions, Tubal-Cain being Vulcan, Iabel Apollo, and Naamah Venus. Idolatry first began in his family; and finally hee had his Sepulcher in the East: all which agree with the former. The Poets, saith Lactantius, did write the truth, though they writ it disguisedly. In his time the people first fell from the worship of God, and through feare or flattery worshipped their King: enuy, malice, and oppression (the poison of Serpents, & rapacity of Wolues) then entred the world, by his persecution of the good, and giuing power to the euill: Warre and Auarice supplying the roome of exiled Religion. Thus infringing their former concord, and happy community; they began to circumuent, betray, and by blood-shed to purchase a mis-named glory.
    The Brasen Age succeeded the Siluer: for man grew not  The Brasen Age  instantly superlatiue wicked, but degenerated by degrees, till imboldned by custome, through his insolencie and out-rage, he affrighted Astraea or justice from the earth: (perhaps alluding to the righteous Henocks miraculous and early assumption) producing this Iron Age, which is here so  The Iron Age  accuratly described by our Poet; and withall those miseries which pursue it.
Dejected Griefe, reuengefull Cares, the rage
Of Pale Diseases, melancholy Age,

Base Beggery, ill-tempting Famine, Feare,
Toyle, Death, and Furies, euer wander there.
But surely we slander this in calling it the Iron:
Now is the true stil'd Golden Age: for Gold
Honour is bought, and loue it selfe is sould.
Nay, of power to corrupt as many Magistrates as it hath made. Wee are honest for reward, and againe dishonest for a greater.
    It is said that the Earth, inraged with Iupiter for the slaughter  THE WARRE OF THE GYANTS  of the Titans, in reuenge produced Gyants of a vast proportion: yet rather so called of their monstrous Mindes. For the statures of Men are now as heretofore: as appeares by the embalmed bodies of the Aegyptians, and by the ancient Sepulchers in Iudea. And as the former Ages haue produced some of a prodigious Height, so also haue the latter. Scaliger saw a Man at Millan, who hardly could lie on two beds, one set at the foot of another: and Goropeus, a Woman in the Netherlands, who exceeded ten feet. The Gyant of Burdeux (of the Guard to Francis the first) was so tall, that a man of indifferent stature might haue gon betweene his legges without stooping: Nor is there any mentioned in antient history that exceeded six or seuen cubits. The first Gyants that we read off were begot by the sonnes of God on the daughters of Men: that is, by the sonnes of Seth on the offspring of Cain. The name signifies to fall, in regard of their defection and apostasie from God and religion: tearmed in the Scriptures men of might and renowne, of their strength, and strenuous performancies: exceeding in pride and crueltie, and therefore said to rebell against Ioue the counterfeit Iehouah. Such was the Gyant Nimrod after the Flood; the ringleader of those who built the Tower of Babel, whose height was intended to haue reacht vnto heauen, and to haue preuented God in his future judgments. And what was that but the throwing of mountaine vpon mountaine, to scale euen heauen it selfe, and warre with the Gods? The one confounded with lightning, and the other by the confusion of languages. But those first are here most properly intended: who also are taken for too potent subjects, or the tumultuary vulgar; rebelling against their Princes, called Gods, as his substitutes: who by their disloyaltie and insolencies violate all lawes both of God and man, and profane whatsoeuer is sacred. The Gyants were the sonnes of the Earth (for so they called of old the ignorant, and earthly minded: as those the sonnes of heauen, who were admired for their virtues) said to be of a huge proportion; in that commonly such are prone to intemperance, wrath, and iniustice; seldome yeelding vnto reason, but are carried with the swinge of their lusts and affections: to haue many handes, in regard of their strength & atchieuements, the feet of Dragons, for their wicked waies & diuelish designes, supporting Rebellion, tyranny & impietie. Pherecides the Syrian writes how the Diuels were throwne out of heauen by Iupiter (this fall of the Gyants perhaps an allusion to that of the Angells) the chiefe called Ophioneus, which signifies Serpentine: hauing after made vse of that creature to poyson Eue with a false ambition. This battail is fained to haue beene fought in Thessaly (the Poets still laying their Sceanes in Greece in which are the here mentioned mountaines of Pelion, Ossa, and Olympus) for the inhumanitie of those people, and their contempt of the Gods; and to be ouerwhelmed by them, for their flaming and sulphurous exhalations. Wherevpon that naturall sense is giuen to this fable; how the Gyants are those windes that struggle in the cauernes of the Earth; which not finding a way inforce it; vomiting fire, and casting vp stones against heauen or Iupiter. The Earth, their mother, of their blood is here said to haue renewed their race: in that succeeded by as cruell and wicked an offspring: It is recorded that Faustina the wife of Marcus Aurelius, being desperately in loue with a Fencer, was cured by the aduice of the Mathematitians with a potion of his blood: who conceauing soone after, was deliuered of Commodus; rather to bee stiled a Fencer then a Prince; whose only delight was in blood and murder. Plutarch writes that the ancient Kings of Aegypt would drinke no wine vntill the reigne of Psammetichus, nor offer it to the Gods: because they held the Vine to spring from the blood of the Gyants that warred against them; whose iuyce made those, who ouer-largely tasted it, like insolent and out-ragious. To preuent such disorders in his Ianisaries, the Grand Seignior not seldome commands all the Wine in Constantinople to bee staued: perhaps the politique intent of Mahomets prohibition. They attribute the Lightning vnto Iupiter; not only in that faigned to be the King of the Gods; but because he is the middle Planet betweene Saturne and Mars, participating of the cold of the one, and heat of the other: thunder and lightning proceeding from the conflict of those contrary qualities.
    Iupiter now intending the destruction of Mankind for their  THE PARLAMENT OF THE GODS  sinnes, here calleth a Counsell: to informe vs how all humane affaires are gouerned by the certaine decree and prouidence of God; not by chance or Fortune, as the Tragedian complaineth.
O why shouldst thou that rulst the sky,
And mou'st those Orbs so orderly,
Th' affaires of men so much neglect?
Nor raise the good, nor bad deiect?
No; Fortune without order guides
What euer mortall man betides:
Her bounty her blind hands disburse
At randome; fauoring the worse.
Dire lust foil'd Chastity profanes;
And fraud in Courts of Princes raignes.
Popular suffrages elate
Base men, who honour whom they hate.
Sad vertue the peruerse reward
Receaues of Truth: want presseth hard
On chaster mindes: th' Adulterer high
In vice, commands. Vaine modesty!
Deceitfull excellence!9
A mystery which Dauid could not conceaue, till he had entred the Sanctuary. But by this we are admonished, that nothing in a Common-wealth is to be decreed vnaduisedly or rashly; when Iupiter, who had all in his power, would determine of nothing of moment without the counsell and consent of the Gods: how much more men, who haue so small a portion of that diuine wisdome? Iupiter, that is a King, may of himselfe, saith Seneca, be benificent, but not punish but by aduice and approbation. The Milky way which the Gods doe tread to this celestiall Senate,  THE MILKY WAIE  is the only reall and visible Circle in the Heauens. The poeticall and superstitious conceptions thereof, interwouen with the naturall cause, are thus expressed by Manilius.
Nor will we hide what ancient Fame profest:
How milke which gusht from Iuno's whiter brest
In heauen that splendent path and circle drew;
From whence the name, as erst the colour grew.

Or troops of vnseene starres there ioyne their light;
And with vnited splendor shine more bright.

Or Soules of Heroes, from their bodies freed,
Exchanging Earth for Heauen, (their vertues meede)
Shine in that Orbe, their proper place of rest;

And liue aetheriall liues, of heauen possest.10
This Parlament consists of Iupiter, the King; of the Greater Gods, the Nobles, and of the inferior, the Commons. Of the vpper House there are six Gods, and as many Goddesses: Iupiter, Neptune, Apollo, Mars, Vulcan, Mercury, (the speaker) Iuno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, and Venus: of the Lower, such whom the old world deified for their vertues. Thus by involving they abolished the truth, through the suggestion of the Diuell, to make a confusion, and induce vnto error: these multitude of Gods, with their regall Ioue, so fained of the true Iehouah, the only Lord and Father of all, and of those celestiall Spirits, his ministring Angels: as the other of his blessed Saints which in their puritie retaine his similitude. Neuerthelesse by this example we may conclude with Plato, that the Monarchicall gouernment is of all the best: the type of God, and defigured in the Fabrick of mans Body: thus preferred by Homers Vlisses.
All cannot rule; for many Rulers bring
Confusion: let there be one Lord, one King.
In Iupiters Oration our Poet describes the office of a good Prince in punishing offenders: wherein lenity is to be preferred before seuerity; that all remedies are first to be applied ere inforced to the latter: and then to imitate the beginning of Nero, who wisht he had neuer knowne how to write, when he signed to the death of a Roman: or Bias, who alwaies wept when he pronounced that sentence. But if the disease grew vncurable, then are the corrupted members to be cut off least they infect the whole body. A precept to be practised, as giuen by Ioue in the caelestiall Assembly. Gods protection of the innocent, is here expressed in Iupiters care of the Semi-Gods; whom Regius conceiues to be the Heroes: others coelestiall Spirits vnder humane figures, and procreated for the benefit of Man. But of these hereafter.
    Ioue illustrates the impiety of the world by the example of Lycaon; who thus beginnes his relation.  LYCAON  
The times accus'd, and as I hope beli'd,
To try, I downe from steepe Olympus slide
which Pontanus the Iesuit takes to be deriued from the eighteenth Chapter of Genesis. As Viues these following,
(A God transform'd like one of humane birth,
I wandred through the many-peopled Earth;)
From the bookes of the Sybils; which can concerne no other then Christ, as by him alleadged. Thus many Poeticall fables (saith Tertullian) haue taken their originall from the sacred Scriptures: and what we write is not beleeued, because the same is written by the Poets. This Lycaon was King of Arcadia, a cruell and inhumane Prince: who feasted the Cretan Iupiter (then with him on an embassy) with the flesh of a stranger. Which discouered, hee ouerthrew the table; and rushing into the streets, so incensed the Cittizens, that they betooke them to their weapons, and by his conduct droue him out of the Citty: who liuing like an out-law in the woods, committing daily rapines & robberies, was therefore said, together with his sonnes, to haue beene changed into Wolues: and Ioue for expelling him was called Lycaeus. Others say how he was the first that violated truces, and sacrificed his hostages to Iupiter: by his treachery drawing many into his power to their vtter destruction: and therefore alluding to his name, which signifies a Wolfe, they fained him to be one. Yet Euanthes, no contemptible author, reports how the Arcadians accustomed to choose a man out of the family of Antaeus; who brought to a certaine lake, and forced to swim ouer, became forthwith a Wolfe, for nine years abiding with other wolues in the deserts. In which space if he had tasted no mans flesh, returning to the lake, and swimming backe he recouered his forme. It is wonderfull saith Pliny, to consider how farre the Graecian credulity will extend: no ly so impudent that wanteth a witnesse. But would he not retract his censure, were he now aliue, and saw what is so ordinarily said to be practised by the witches of Germany, who take and forsake the shapes of wolues at their pleasure, and for which they are daily executed? As wee to magicall deceptions; so he, a Naturalist, perhaps would ascribe it to that melancholy disease, or rather madnesse, of which the infected are called Lycanthropi, in that they imitate wolues, and thinke themselues such, leaping out of their beds in the night, and lurking about the sepulchers by day, with pale lookes, hollow eyes, thirsty tongues, and exulcerated bodies. But this fable of Lycaon was deuised to deterre from impiety, treachery, & inhospitality; as also to excite to the contrary virtues: since the Gods, though disguized, are alwaies present; punishing, and rewarding, according to our actions. In this, as in the rest, our Poet proportions the transformation to the quality of the transformed.
A wolfe not much from his first forme estrang'd:
So hoary hair'd, his lookes so full of rape;
So fiery-ey'd, so terrible his shape.
    The Gods in this Counsill are cheifly solicitous about the preseruation of the diuine worship: to informe how Religion should be the chiefe and first care in all consultations: the World being made for man, and man for Gods seruice, as the diuine Philosopher could instruct vs.
    Iupiter intending to burne the Earth, is restrained by that remembred destiny, how not only Earth, but Heauen it selfe, should one day by fire be consumed. This is held to be but once reuealed in the Scriptures, and that by S. Peter; how came it then to the knowledge of Ovid, who was dead before that Epistle was written? It may bee out of the Prophecies of the Sybels, as in this.
These signes the Worlds combustion shall fore-run:
Armes clashing, trumpets, from the rising Sunne
Horrible fragors, heard by all: this frame

Of Nature then shall feede the greedy flame.
Men, Citties, Floods, and Seas, by rau'nous lust
Of fire deuour'd, all shall resolue to dust.
    From hence perhaps the ancient Philosophers deriued their opinions, as Seneca a latter: The stares shall incounter one another, and whatsoeuer now shines so orderly shall burne in one fire. Who presume to ascribe it to a naturall cause: that the Sunne and the Starres, being fed by watry vapours, shall set the world on a conflagration as soone as that nourishment is exhausted: when as the Starres are not fiery in their proper nature, and no vapours ascend aboue the middle Region of the Aier. Besides what sustenance can they receaue from the humidity of the Earth, when the least fixed starre which is obserued is eighteene, and the Sunne one hundred sixty and seauen times bigger then the Earth it selfe. But the immediate hand of God shall effect it, as it did this deluge; although this also the Naturalists impute to watery constellations.
    The Sinnes of men drew on (in which our Poet concurres with Moses) the generall Deluge, although he transferre it to Deucalions, wherein most of Greece was surrounded; which  DEVCALIONS FLOOD  hapned seauen hundred and fourescore yeares after the other: yet in this he describeth the former, as appeares by many particulars: which may serue to reconcile his Chronology, for many of these following stories were before the daies of Deucalion. There is no nation so barbarous, no not the saluage Virginians, but haue some notion of so great a ruine. The naturall causes he alleadgeth of these accumulated waters. The North windes are shut vp, the South set at liberty; the clowdes descend in showres, which are nourished by the Raine-bow: because the Raine is increased by that dissoluing vapour wherein it  The Raine-bow  appeareth: so formed and painted by the reflected rayes of the opposite Sunne, on a dropping, darke, & hollow cloud. The vpper-most colour is crimson, made by the stronger refraction on the darker part thereof; for light vpon blacke produceth a red: the next is greene, proceeding from a feebler, on a part more remote and watery: the lowest is blew, created by the weakest rayes; so that the sight can hardly apprehend the reflected splendor, which therefore appeares more darke and obscure. The conjunction of these colours augment their diuersity, as red and greene ingender a yellow: yet all are only in apparance, like those which are seene in a Merror. To confirme what hath beene alleadged by a knowne experiment; if with a scoope, against the setting Sunne, you cast water circularly into the aire, a rainebow will appeare therein. This is called Iris, the daughter of Thaumas, or Wonder; Iris imports a message, because it presageth faire or foule weather, as it followeth the contrary; & therefore the messenger of Iuno, who is taken for the aire where clouds are ingendred. Moreouer Neptune lifts vp his floods, the commaunded Riuers vnlocke their Fountaines; he strikes the Earth with his Trident, which is said to shake, in that the land which borders on the Sea is most subject vnto Earthquakes; whose breaches giue new ascents to subterren waters, or let in those of the Ocean. Some would fetch water from aboue the firmament to make enough for this Deluge (though that perhaps be meant by the clouds) least God should be forced to a new creation after his Sabaoth. And although the dissolution of the snow which perpetually couers the mountaines, especially of that huge accumulation from the beginning of the World beyond the Articke; and Antarticke Circles; the rarifying of the frozen and vniuersall Ocean (like a pot boyling ouer) as we see at full floods in a smaller proportion; the waters in the hollowes of the earth, squiezed as out of a spunge, and supplied with aire, with those former concomitancies, might proue abundantly sufficient; yet is it safer to admire, then subject his miracles vnto naturall causes. They attribute a Trident (a lance with three forkes) vnto Neptune: which signifies the third site (according to Plutarch) of the Element of water, below the sky and the aire; whereupon the sea was called Amphitrite, and the petty Seagods Tritons, or of the three parts of the Worlde (the fourth then vnknowne) imbraced by the Ocean: or of his triple power in enraging, asswaging, and bounding the surges. But Neptune  Neptunes Trident  was a mortall (as the rest of the Gods) to whom his brother Iupiter gaue the Empire of the Sea, with the Ilands, & Maritime citties: as was registred on a Pillar of gold in the Temple of Iupiter Triphylius.
    Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, the Daughter of his brother  DEVCALION AND PYRRHA  Epimetheus, alone escaped (the reward of their piety) this generall destruction: he hauing made an Arke by the aduice of his father Prometheus in which he floated on the waters. Lucian reports that not only they and their children entred the same, but all the creatures which the Earth sustained: comming vnto him by paires, and deposing their naturall discord by the dispensation of Iupiter: and Plutarch, that he let forth a Doue, which returning oft, at length came no more: by which he knew that shee had found footing: alluding all to the history of Noah: he is said to haue beene King of Thessaly, the first founder of Cities, and erecter of Temples: in whose dayes those parts abounded with men, as they with flagitious offenses. For multitudes of people procure a scarcity of all things, and necessity makes men more crafty, dishonest, and irregular. For these crimes, in those times (as our Poet here intimates) there fell such abundance of raine as drowned almost all Greece; Deucalion and Pyrrha sauing themselues on the top of Larnassus, so called of their couered boate, and after Parnassus, a mountaine of Phocis:
From East and West alike remoued lies
Parnassus; whose two tops aspire the skies:
Phoebus and Lyaeus consecrate.
To both the Theban Bacchae celebrate
The Delphicke third-yeares feast. This did diuide
Swolne Seas from Starres; the whole World drown'd beside.13
    To apply the fable yet more to the history. Both Noah and Deucalion are celebrated for their Iustice and Religion: Noah was commanded to build an Arke by God; & Deucalion aduised thereunto by Prometheus, which is, the diuine Prouidence: both saued for their vertue, the one on mount Ararat, and the other on Parnassus, while the vitious are swallowed by their owne impieties.
    Now Iupiter dissipateth the clouds, sets the North-winde at liberty, and shewes the Earth vnto Heauen: Neptune suppresseth the Seas with his Trident, and commands his trumpeter Triton to sound a retreat to the waters; who is thus described by Virgil.
Whom mighty Triton beares, whose shells lowd blast
Blew floods affright: his figure to the wast

Presents a man; the rest a fish, before
His monstrous breast the foaming surges roare.14
    Others describe him, perhaps more exactly, to haue haire like water-parsely, a body couered with small and hard scales, gilles a little vnder the eares, the nostrills of a man, a wide mouth, with Panthers teeth: blew eyes, hands, fingers, and nailes, like the shell of a fish, finnes vnder the breast like a Dolphin. Pliny writes how an Embassador was sent of purpose from the Olissiponensi vnto Tiberius Caesar to tell him of a Triton, seene and heard in a certaine caue, winding a shell, and in such a forme as they are commonly painted. But I cannot omit what is written by Alexander ab Alexandro, who liued in the last century, how he heard one Draconet Boniface of Naples, a souldier of much experience, report in an honorable assembly, that in the warres of Spaine, he saw a sea monster with the face and body like a man, but below the belly like a fish, brought thither from the farthest shores of Mauritania. It had an old countenance; the haire and beard rough and shaggy, blew of colour, and high of stature, with finnes betweene the armes and the body. These were held for Gods of the Sea, and propitious to sailers: Ignorance producing admiration, and admiration superstition. Yet perhaps they erre not who conceaued them to be only Diuells, assuming that forme, to nourish a false deuotion.
    The desolate Earth now emergent, distressed Deucalion and Pyrrha, purging themselues with the holy water of Cephisus (an ancient custome among the Pagans) repaire to the temple of  Mankind from Stones  Themis; with prostrated bodyes and humble soules presenting their prayers to the Goddesse. Prayers inforce Coelestiall pitty, and pitty reliefe; afforded in this answere.
Goe from my Temple; both your faces hide:
Let garments, all vnbraced, loosely flow;
And your great Parents bones behind you throw.
The Earth interpreted for our common mother, and the stones for her bones, dissolued the ambiguity of the Oracle. Such was that of Apollo to Sextus and Aruns the sonnes of Tarquin, Iunius Brutus then present: Which of you first kisseth his Mother, shall haue the soueraigne command of Rome. The brethren cast lots who first should salute her after their returne: but Brutus, a supposed idiot, faining to stumble, fell flat on the Earth and kissed it: lighting on a true sence, as appeared by the sequell. Like vnto this was Caesars dreame the night before he passed ouer Rubicon, how he carnally knew his mother, which signified his country. The same is reported of our Henry the fourth when he landed at Rauenspurge; both of them obtaining the empire of either. As Prometheus before made men of Clay, so now Deucalion his son, and Pyrrha his neece, by casting of stones behind them: both including one morall; that of saluage men they made ciuill, and imbewed their minds with coelestiall knowledge: & that by the aduice of Themis, which is the inbred law and instinct of nature. The congruity of the names gaue birth, perhaps, to the fable: for Λάας signifieth a stone, and Λάος, the common people. Or in that they drew the rude and stone-like people in to the plaines from the rocks and caues of the mountaines first after the Deluge, and gathered them into Cities. God is said in the Gospell to be able of stones to raise vp children vnto Abraham: the sence not vnlike, though diuiner; meaning the ingrafting of the Gentiles into his faith, hardned in sinne through ignorance and custome. So the giuing vs hearts of flesh insteed of those of stone, is meant by our conversion. Themis gaue Oracles at the foote of Pernassus, long before  THEMIS  Apollo gaue any at Delphos. She is said to be the daughter of Coelus and Cybele, commanding men onely to aske what was just and lawfull; her selfe the same; and her name signifying as much. So as those who forswore themselues by the name of Themis, were held to violate all lawes both diuine and humane, and capitally to sinne against either.
    There was neede of diuine aduice for the restoring of man: Heat and Moisture, the parents of Generation, are feigned here to haue produced the rest: among which Python, a prodigious  PYTHON  serpent, whose bulke tooke vp so much of the mountaine. Although this be allegoricall, yet read we of so huge a Serpent by Bograda in Africa, that it depriued the Roman army, vnder Attilius Regulus, of the vse of the Riuer; deuouring many of his souldiers, and crushing many to death with his imbracements: whose body no dart nor weapon could penetrate: more terrible to the Legions and Cohorts, than warre or Carthage: destroyed at last with milstones, and peeces of rocks, throwne out of engines; the stench infecting both the aire and army. His skinne was a hundred and twenty foote long. But the sence of this fable is meerely Physicall: for Python, borne after the Deluge of the humide Earth, is that great exhalation which rose from the late drowned World, vntill it was dissipated by the feruor of the Sunne or Apollo.
The Earth then soakt in showres, yet hardly dry,
Threw vp thicke cloudes which darkned all the sky:
This was that
    The word signifies putrefaction: and because the Sunne consumes the putrefaction of the Earth, his beams darting from his orbe like arrowes; with his arrowes he is said to haue killed Python. So serpentine Error by the light of truth is confounded. The Spirit which inspired the Priests of Apollo was called Pytho, as they themselues Pythonists. But, who will beleeue that the Pythian games had their originall from this fable? Strabo relates that Python was a wicked and bloody theife, who infested all those parts with his outrages, and therefore was called Draco. He slaine by Apollo, the Delphians in gratitude for their recouered liberty, did institute those Games to his honour. During their fight the standers-by cryed Io Paean, that is, shoote Apollo: which after grew a customary acclamation in victories. So the Graecians sung the Paean (a Hymne to Apollo) when they went to the battle; as we read in Thucydides and Zenophon. These games were of all other the most ancient: celebrated in the beginning of the spring, not only by Greece, but by all the inhabitants of the Cyclades.
    Apollo, elated with his victory, despiseth Cupid: yet escapes  DAPHNE  not his vengeance. He is here called a boy, by reason of the diuersity of affections which raigne in Louers; apt to beleeue, easily deceaued, and refractory to reason: or that loue is as a child in the heart of a louer, euer growing, and neuer waxing old; though not still in apparance, yet alwaies in efficacy. For loue is truely loue no longer then it increaseth: a deadly symptome is his standing at a stay; and his first declination, a downefall. He is said to be armed with fire, in that he inflames the heart with ardent desires: and as fire is of all elements the most noble and actiue, euen so is loue of all the affections: to haue wings in regard of the inconstancy of loue; or of his swift desires and impatiency of delay: or rather of a louers celerity and industry in seruing and deseruing. Cupid drawes out of his quiuer two arrowes of contrary effects: the one tipt with gold, the mettall of the Sunne, who heats our bloods and fills vs with alacrity: the other with lead, belonging to Saturne, cold and melancholy: alacrity procures, and melancholy (not that which proceeds from extremity of heat, which hath a contrary operation) extinguishes desires.
That mind is soonest caught which springs with mirth:
Like corne which riots on the lusty earth.

The heart that's free from sorrow, open lies
Venus arts, and flattering loues surprise.
Ilium repell'd the Graecian force:
But full of joy, receau'd the fatall Horse.
    Gold also is the symboll of Plenty, which nourisheth loue; and lead of Pouerty, which starues it: Pliny also writes that a
plate of lead applied to the breast suppresseth vnchast dreames. To loue he attributes a double power of disdaine and affection, and Horace
Who often vnlike minds and formes prouokes
To draw vnequally in hated yokes,

With cruell Mirth.17
    But distinguished in person in that painted table at Elis. Where the one (Anteros, or the loue of vertue,) endeauours to bereaue the other of his Palme: by his name proclaiming defiance. Of whom perhaps our Poet in his Remedy:
Neere Port Collina, for deuotion fam'd
A temple stands, of lofty
Erix nam'd:
This shrines
Lethaean loue, who cures desires
And powres cold water on his scorching fires.
    Bow and arrowes are giuen to Cupid; in that beauty wounds afarre off; and as an arrow the body, so peirceth it the heart through the eye: or of the wonderfull celerity of the mind, transfixing it selfe, and profoundly penetrating. Daphne affects Diana, which is chastity: preserued by solitarinesse, labour, and neglect of Curiosity: Apollo Daphne; drawne on with a barren hope. Louers are great boasters. He braggs of his temples, his parentage, his art of diuination, (attributed, in that those, in whose natiuity that Planet predominates, are of the greatest foreknowledge: or that, as the eye of the World, he beholds things present, past, and to come) of his invention of musicke, which solaceth the mind, and remoues our manifold cares with a sweete obliuion. The first instruments had but seuen strings, in refference to the seuen Planets: and because the Sunne is placed in the midst as Lord of the rest, whose motions (according to Pythagoras) doe make an incredible harmony, he therefore is said to haue invented Musicke. As likewise Physick (his name as deriued by Festus importing as much as to free and preserue from euill) in that the Sunne is so powerfull in producing Physicall simples, and to our bodies so salubrious. Yet heare we this great Physition.
Ay me! that hearbs can loue no cure afford!
That arts, relieuing all should faile their Lord!
    Daphne, almost ouertaken, inuokes the deities of the Riuer and Earth, to deuoure or transforme that beautifull forme which had so much indangerd her: who assistant to distressed virtue, convert her into a lawrell; (expressed in her name) the image of her beauty and chastity: innobled by her louer with addition of honours. This tree is consecrated to Apollo, or the Sunne, as agreeing with his nature; being hot and dry, of great efficacy as well in diuination as Physick; his Prophets crowning themselues with lawrell, and eating of the berries. Nor wants it authority that the leaues thereof laid vnder the pillow will procure true dreames. The two Lawrells here mentioned which grew before the Pallace of Augustus, with an Oke betweene them, declare that the safety of a Prince is guarded by Virtue and felicity: the one being the ensigne of Victory, and the other of a preserued Cittizen. The originall of these there planted is thus related by Suetonius, and others: As Liuia immediatly after her marriage with Augustus, trauailed to a Villa of hers in the Veientine territory, an Eagle soaring ouer her head, let fall a white hen into her lap, with a branch of lawrell in her bill. Taken with the omen, shee caused the one to be carefully kept, and the other to be planted. From the hen proceeded an infinite sort of the same colour; in so much as that very house was diuerse ages after called Ad Gallinas: and from the lawrell a goodly row of bay trees, whereof the Caesars made their garlands when they rod in triumph, and bare in their hands the branches: these, the solemnity ended, they stuck in the Earth by the rest of the trees, which augmented their number. But what was miraculous, when any one of them dyed, the trees which he had planted perished with him: and at the death of Nero (the last of the Caesars) the whole groue withered. The Laurell, by reason of her natiue heat, is euer young and flourishing: here fained such by the gift of Apollo, in imitation of his eternall youth, and vnshorne tresses: attributed to the sunne, in that rising and setting he is euer the same; his faire haire no other then his long & beautifull beames. It was the custome of the Graecian youth not to cut their haire vntill the downe appeared on their chinnes, and then to offer it at Delphos to Apollo. Daphne is changed into a neuer-withering tree, to shew what immortall honour a virgin obtaines by preseruing her chastity. She is said to be the daughter of Peneus, because the banks of that riuer abound with laurel; to be beloued of Apollo, in that the fairest grew about his Temple of Delphos; to fly his pursuit, in that they affect the shadow; and to repell the fire of lust, in not being scorched by the Sunne nor Lightning.
    The neighbour and forraine Riuers now visit old Peneus, not knowing whether to condole or congratulate, for the losse, or noble transformation of his daughter. Onely Inachus was  IO  absent, lamenting the misse of his ; pursued, and comprest in a cloud by Iupiter: called the Thunderer, the ruler of the World, the giuer of all good; yet introduced for an adulterer, a rauisher of virgins, and in himselfe a receiuer of all euill. This Inachus, the father of , was the first that euer raigned in Argos, accidentally drowned in Carmanor, which after was called by his name; and faigned to be the daughter of that Riuer. Palaephatus in his treatise of the convincing of fables, relating as incredible things, and more defacing the truth by professing it, (when fiction, that spar of Gold, is the art; & truth well counterfeited, the honour of the Poet) reports how , the Priest of Iuno, being got with child, and fearing the fury of her father Inachus, fled out of the citty: whereupon it was fained by the Argiues that the mad Cow was broke loose, & deliuered in Aegypt. But Herodotus, how the Phaenician Merchants sailing into Greece, and the women of Argos (among whom was ) comming aboard to see their commodities, were surprized by them, and carried thether. Which more agreeth with the truth, since the ship that brought her was celebrated by the Aegyptians in their festiualls. Diodorus writes how being the most beautifull woman of that age, shee was married by Osyris; he called Iupiter, and she Isis; from whence the fable of Iupiters loue vnto Io was deriued. She teaching the Aegyptians husbandry & many vsefull knowledges, was after deified by them, and honoured with Temples and Altars. Most certaine it is that they worshiped Osyris in the likenesse of an Oxe, (and why not Isis in the forme of a Cow?) expressing agriculture (as they did) by the one; and the soyle of Aegypt by the other. Neither doubt I but that the Israelites, long sojourning there, brought from thence their superstition of the Golden Calfe; made after two by Ieroboam, who also had liued, as an exile in that Country. Concerning the naturall sence of this fable; Io is taken for the Earth, the daughter of the Riuer Inachus, or water in generall (as the son of Oceanus and Tethys:) in that the Earth afarre off appeares to rise from the Sea. Iupiter lay with her in a clowd; the aethereall heat, which is Iupiter, drawing vapors from the earth perpetually: fained to be turned into a cow, for the industry of that creature in cultiuating the Earth from whence she receaues her fertility. Iupiter renders the Cow to approaching Iuno, the milder temperature of the aire; the extreames of heat and cold being equally hurtfull to production: which she deliuers to the custody of Argus. Argus is taken for Heauen, his eyes for the starres, which continually behold the Cow, that is, the Earth, and by the varying of times by his motion procures her fertility. Halfe his hundred eyes are said to watch, while the other halfe slept: so halfe of them shine, the rest obscured by the splendor of the Sun; here as vsually, taken for Mercury, because that Planet is almost vnder his Orbe: thus expressed by Pontanus.
'Tis said that Mercury, exchanging name,
Did with his drowsy
Caduceus tame
Forg'd Argus hundred eyes with sleepe, that slept
By halues, while he the snowy Heifer kept.
Argus is Heauen; aethereall fires his eyes,
That wake by turnes; and Starres that set and rise.
These sparkle on the brow of shady Night

But when Apollo rears his glorious light,
They, vanquisht by so great a splendor, dy;
And buried, in obscure Olympus ly.
    The fable hath also an historicall allusion vnto Argus, that old and prudent Argiue king, who was slaine by Mercury, in hope to succeede him: when banished for that fact by the Greekes he fled into Aegypt. But allegoricaly: in that skill and industry is more auailable in husbandry then the influence of the starres. The Cow wandring through many Regions is the propagation of that knowledge: & in that Aegypt exceeds all other in richnesse, and naturall bounty, there is fained to recouer her owne figure. Others haue wrested this fable to morality: That Iupiter, the mind of man falling from Heauen, and ioyning with Io, the body in a clowd is turned into a beast: as forgetfull of his owne originall; and captiuated by his vices: when of more maturity in age and judgement, Mercury is sent to kill Argus, in that Reason bridles and subdues the exorbitancies of the affections. Then Iuno lets loose the Furies, the stings of the Conscience.
A Hell on Earth: th'afflicted mind dismaid,
of foule crimes, and of it selfe affraid.
Some safely sin, none sinne securely beare;
But suffer still the vengeance which they feare.
    This horror begets repentance, repentance reformation, by which he is restored to his former beauty, and becomes like the Gods through his sanctity and integrity.
    This fable is interwouen with that of Pan and Syrinx. Pan was the first that invented the seauen-fold Pipe: and for that cause is said to haue loued Syrinx, who when she could not auoid his pursuit, was changed into Reeds by the Nymphs of the Riuer. Syrinx signifies a reede, here fained the daughter of Ladon, in that there they grow in abundance. Of this Pipe, and how first found out thus singeth Lucretius.
By murmuring of wind-shaken reeds, rude swaines
Learnt first of all to blow on hollow canes,

Then pipes of peeces framd; whence musicke sprung;
Playd on by quauering fingers as they sung

Deuiz'd in shades and plaines, where shepheards graze
Their bleating flocks, with leasure-crowned laies.
    This was the Shepheard Pan; who for the same was esteemed a God, as others were for other inventions. But of him hereafter. This tale is told by Mercury the God of eloquence; whose winged feete declare his volubility of speech; his rod, the power of elocution in perswading and disswading; and his hat his disguised art wherewith he couers the fallacies of his arguments.
    Now Epaphus, the son of Io, attaining the gouernment of Aegyt, built the citty of Memphis; and caused his mother after her death to be adored for a Goddesse: who taxing Phaeton (as our Poet here faines) to be no son to Phoebus, is the cause of his journey to his fathers pallace; and consequently of the Worlds conflagration.

On to Book II